1887

Abstract

Bacterial co-infections are a major complication in influenza-virus-induced disease in both humans and animals. Either of the pathogens may induce a host response that affects the infection by the other pathogen. A unique feature in the co-infection by swine influenza viruses (SIV) and serotype 2 is the direct interaction between the two pathogens. It is mediated by the haemagglutinin of SIV that recognizes the α2,6-linked sialic acid present in the capsular polysaccharide of . In the present study, this interaction was demonstrated for SIV of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes as well as for human influenza viruses that recognize α2,6-linked sialic acid. Binding of SIV to resulted in co-sedimentation of virus with bacteria during low-speed centrifugation. Viruses bound to bacteria retained infectivity but induced only tiny plaques compared with control virus. Infection of porcine tracheal cells by SIV facilitated adherence of , which was evident by co-staining of bacterial and viral antigen. Sialic-acid-dependent binding of was already detectable after incubation for 30 min. By contrast, bacterial co-infection had a negative effect on the replication of SIV as indicated by lower virus titres in the supernatant and a delay in the kinetics of virus release.

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2015-09-01
2020-04-09
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