1887

Abstract

The interchange between retroviruses and their hosts is an intimate one because retroviruses integrate proviral DNA into host chromosomal DNA as an obligate step in the replication cycle. This has resulted in the occasional transduction of host genes into retroviral genomes as oncogenes, and also led to the integration of viral genomes into the host germ line that gives rise to endogenous retroviruses. I shall reflect on the evolutionary consequences of these events for virus and host. Then, I shall discuss the emergence of non-viral infections of host origin, namely, how malignant cells can give rise to eukaryotic single cell ‘parasites’ that colonize new hosts and how these in turn have been colonized by host mitochondria.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000220
2015-09-01
2019-12-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/96/9/2501.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000220&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aiewsakun P. , Katzourakis A. . ( 2015;). Endogenous viruses: connecting recent and ancient viral evolution. Virology 479: (480C), 26–37 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amariglio E.N. , Hakim I. , Brok-Simoni F. , Grossman Z. , Katzir N. , Harmelin A. , Ramot B. , Rechavi G. . ( 1991;). Identity of rearranged LINE/c-MYC junction sequences specific for the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88: 8136–8139 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aswad A. , Katzourakis A. . ( 2014;). The first endogenous herpesvirus, identified in the tarsier genome, and novel sequences from primate rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses. PLoS Genet 10: e1004332 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ávila-Arcos M.C. , Ho S.Y. , Ishida Y. , Nikolaidis N. , Tsangaras K. , Hönig K. , Medina R. , Rasmussen M. , Fordyce S.L. , other authors . ( 2013;). One hundred twenty years of koala retrovirus evolution determined from museum skins. Mol Biol Evol 30: 299–304 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Banfield W.G. , Woke P.A. , Mackay C.M. , Cooper H.L. . ( 1965;). Mosquito transmission of a reticulum cell sarcoma of hamsters. Science 148: 1239–1240 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barré-Sinoussi F. , Chermann J.C. , Rey F. , Nugeyre M.T. , Chamaret S. , Gruest J. , Dauguet C. , Axler-Blin C. , Vézinet-Brun F. , other authors . ( 1983;). Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220: 868–871 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Belshaw R. , Pereira V. , Katzourakis A. , Talbot G. , Paces J. , Burt A. , Tristem M. . ( 2004;). Long-term reinfection of the human genome by endogenous retroviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 4894–4899 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bentvelzen P. , Daams J.H. , Hageman P. , Calafat J. . ( 1970;). Genetic transmission of viruses that incite mammary tumor in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67: 377–384 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Benveniste R.E. , Todaro G.J. . ( 1974;). Evolution of C-type viral genes: inheritance of exogenously acquired viral genes. Nature 252: 456–459 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Benveniste R.E. , Callahan R. , Sherr C.J. , Chapman V. , Todaro G.J. . ( 1977;). Two distinct endogenous type C viruses isolated from the Asian rodent Mus cervicolor: conservation of virogene sequences in related rodent species. J Virol 21: 849–862 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bhardwaj N. , Coffin J.M. . ( 2014;). Endogenous retroviruses and human cancer: is there anything to the rumors?. Cell Host Microbe 15: 255–259 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blaise S. , de Parseval N. , Bénit L. , Heidmann T. . ( 2003;). Genomewide screening for fusogenic human endogenous retrovirus envelopes identifies syncytin 2, a gene conserved on primate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 13013–13018 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blond J.L. , Lavillette D. , Cheynet V. , Bouton O. , Oriol G. , Chapel-Fernandes S. , Mandrand B. , Mallet F , Cosset F.L. . ( 2000;). An envelope glycoprotein of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W is expressed in the human placenta and fuses cells expressing the type D mammalian retrovirus receptor. J Virol 74: 3321–3329.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bolisetty M. , Blomberg J. , Benachenhou F. , Sperber G. , Beemon K. . ( 2012;). Unexpected diversity and expression of avian endogenous retroviruses. MBio 3: e00344–e00e12 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Boshoff C. , Weiss R. . ( 2002;). AIDS-related malignancies. Nat Rev Cancer 2: 373–382 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Boyd M.T. , Bax C.M.R. , Bax B.E. , Bloxam D.L. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1993;). The human endogenous retrovirus ERV-3 is upregulated in differentiating placental trophoblast cells. Virology 196: 905–909 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Callahan R. , Meade C. , Todaro G.J. . ( 1979;). Isolation of an endogenous type C virus related to the infectious primate type C viruses from the Asian rodent Vandeleuria oleracea . J Virol 30: 124–131 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Canfield P.J. , Sabine J.M. , Love D.N. . ( 1988;). Virus particles associated with leukaemia in a koala. Aust Vet J 65: 327–328 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chang Y. , Cesarman E. , Pessin M.S. , Lee F. , Culpepper J. , Knowles D.M. , Moore P.S. . ( 1994;). Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266: 1865–1869 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cingöz O. , Paprotka T. , Delviks-Frankenberry K.A. , Wildt S. , Hu W.S. , Pathak V.K. , Coffin J.M. . ( 2012;). Characterization, mapping, and distribution of the two XMRV parental proviruses. J Virol 86: 328–338 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cohen D. . ( 1985;). The canine transmissible venereal tumor: a unique result of tumor progression. Adv Cancer Res 43: 75–112 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dalgleish A.G. , Beverley P.C.L. , Clapham P.R. , Crawford D.H. , Greaves M.F. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1984;). The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312: 763–767 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. de Parseval N. , Heidmann T. . ( 1998;). Physiological knockout of the envelope gene of the single-copy ERV-3 human endogenous retrovirus in a fraction of the Caucasian population. J Virol 72: 3442–3445 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Duesberg P.H. , Vogt P.K. . ( 1970;). Differences between the ribonucleic acids of transforming and nontransforming avian tumor viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67: 1673–1680 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Feschotte C. , Gilbert C. . ( 2012;). Endogenous viruses: insights into viral evolution and impact on host biology. Nat Rev Genet 13: 283–296 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Flockerzi A. , Ruggieri A. , Frank O. , Sauter M. , Maldener E. , Kopper B. , Wullich B. , Seifarth W. , Müller-Lantzsch N. , other authors . ( 2008;). Expression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project. BMC Genomics 9: 354 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Frisby D.P. , Weiss R.A. , Roussel M. , Stehelin D. . ( 1979;). The distribution of endogenous chicken retrovirus sequences in the DNA of galliform birds does not coincide with avian phylogenetic relationships. Cell 17: 623–634 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fuchs N.V. , Loewer S. , Daley G.Q. , Izsvák Z. , Löwer J. , Löwer R. . ( 2013;). Human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) RNA and protein expression is a marker for human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Retrovirology 10: 115 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Geryk J. , Dezélée P. , Barnier J.V. , Svoboda J. , Nehyba J. , Karakoz I. , Rynditch A.V. , Yatsula B.A. , Calothy G. . ( 1989;). Transduction of the cellular src gene and 3′ adjacent sequences in avian sarcoma virus PR2257. J Virol 63: 481–492 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Greaves M.F. , Maia A.T. , Wiemels J.L. , Ford A.M. . ( 2003;). Leukemia in twins: lessons in natural history. Blood 102: 2321–2333 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Griffiths D.J. . ( 2001;). Endogenous retroviruses in the human genome sequence. Genome Biol 2: S1017 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Grow E.J. , Flynn R.A. , Chavez S.L. , Bayless N.L. , Wossidlo M. , Wesche D.J. , Martin L. , Ware C.B. , Blish C.A. , other authors . ( 2015;). Intrinsic retroviral reactivation in human preimplantation embryos and pluripotent cells. Nature 522: 221–225 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hanafusa H. , Hanafusa T. , Rubin H. . ( 1963;). The defectiveness of Rous sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 49: 572–580 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hanafusa H. , Miyamoto T. , Hanafusa T. . ( 1970;). A cell-associated factor essential for formation of an infectious form of Rous sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 66: 314–321 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hanger J.J. , Bromham L.D. , McKee J.J. , O'Brien T.M. , Robinson W.F. . ( 2000;). The nucleotide sequence of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) retrovirus: a novel type C endogenous virus related to Gibbon ape leukemia virus. J Virol 74: 4264–4272 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hayes H.M. Jr , Biggar R.J. , Pickle L.W. , Hoover R. , Toft J.D. II . ( 1983;). Canine transmissible venereal tumor: a model for Kaposi's sarcoma?. Am J Epidemiol 117: 108–109 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hervé C.A. , Forrest G. , Löwer R. , Griffiths D.J. , Venables P.J. . ( 2004;). Conservation and loss of the ERV3 open reading frame in primates. Genomics 83: 940–943 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ishida Y. , Zhao K. , Greenwood A.D. , Roca A.L. . ( 2015;). Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion. Mol Biol Evol 32: 109–120 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Katzir N. , Arman E. , Cohen D. , Givol D. , Rechavi G. . ( 1987;). Common origin of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs. Oncogene 1: 445–448 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kawakami T.G. , Huff S.D. , Buckley P.M. , Dungworth D.L. , Synder S.P. , Gilden R.V. . ( 1972;). C-type virus associated with gibbon lymphosarcoma. Nat New Biol 235: 170–171 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kawakami T.G. , Sun L. , McDowell T.S. . ( 1978;). Natural transmission of gibbon leukemia virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1113–1115 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Knipe D. M. , Howley P. M. (editors . ), ( 2013;). Fields Virology Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lavialle C. , Cornelis G. , Dupressoir A. , Esnault C. , Heidmann O. , Vernochet C. , Heidmann T. . ( 2013;). Paleovirology of ‘syncytins’, retroviral env genes exapted for a role in placentation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368: 20120507 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lazebnik Y. , Parris G.E. . ( 2015;). Comment on: ‘Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research’: human-to-human cancer transmission as a laboratory safety concern. Br J Cancer 112: 1976–1977 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Le Tissier P. , Stoye J.P. , Takeuchi Y. , Patience C. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1997;). Two sets of human-tropic pig retrovirus. Nature 389: 681–682 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lieber M.M. , Sherr C.J. , Todaro G.J. , Benveniste R.E. , Callahan R. , Coon H.G. . ( 1975;). Isolation from the Asian mouse Mus caroli of an endogenous type C virus related to infectious primate type C viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72: 2315–2319 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lin L. , Xu B. , Rote N.S. . ( 1999;). Expression of endogenous retrovirus ERV-3 induces differentiation in BeWo, a choriocarcinoma model of human placental trophoblast. Placenta 20: 109–118 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Long J. , Wright E. , Molesti E. , Temperton N. , Barclay W. . ( 2015;). Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry. F1000 Res 4: 30 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Love D.N. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1974;). Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus determined by exogenous and endogenous avian RNA tumor viruses. Virology 57: 271–278 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Löwer R. , Löwer J. , Kurth R. . ( 1996;). The viruses in all of us: characteristics and biological significance of human endogenous retrovirus sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 5177–5184 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lowy D.R. , Rowe W.P. , Teich N. , Hartley J.W. . ( 1971;). Murine leukemia virus: high-frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Science 174: 155–156 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Maddon P.J. , Dalgleish A.G. , McDougal J.S. , Clapham P.R. , Weiss R.A. , Axel R. . ( 1986;). The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell 47: 333–348 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Magiorkinis G. , Belshaw R. , Katzourakis A. . ( 2013;). ‘There and back again’: revisiting the pathophysiological roles of human endogenous retroviruses in the post-genomic era. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368: 20120504 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Malfavon-Borja R. , Feschotte C. . ( 2015;). Fighting fire with fire: endogenous retrovirus envelopes as restriction factors. J Virol 89: 4047–4050 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Mata H. , Gongora J. , Eizirik E. , Alves B.M. , Soares M.A. , Ravazzolo A.P. . ( 2015;). Identification and characterization of diverse groups of endogenous retroviruses in felids. Retrovirology 12: 26 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  56. McCoy L.E. , Quigley A.F. , Strokappe N.M. , Bulmer-Thomas B. , Seaman M.S. , Mortier D. , Rutten L. , Chander N. , Edwards C.J. , other authors . ( 2012;). Potent and broad neutralization of HIV-1 by a llama antibody elicited by immunization. J Exp Med 209: 1091–1103 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Metzger M.J. , Reinisch C. , Sherry J. , Goff S.P. . ( 2015;). Horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells causes leukemia in soft-shell clams. Cell 161: 255–263 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Mi S. , Lee X. , Li X. , Veldman G.M. , Finnerty H. , Racie L. , LaVallie E. , Tang X.Y. , Edouard P. , other authors . ( 2000;). Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis. Nature 403: 785–789 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Moyes D. , Griffiths D.J. , Venables P.J. . ( 2007;). Insertional polymorphisms: a new lease of life for endogenous retroviruses in human disease. Trends Genet 23: 326–333 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Murchison E.P. , Schulz-Trieglaff O.B. , Ning Z. , Alexandrov L.B. , Bauer M.J. , Fu B. , Hims M. , Ding Z. , Ivakhno S. , other authors . ( 2012;). Genome sequencing and analysis of the Tasmanian devil and its transmissible cancer. Cell 148: 780–791 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Murchison E.P. , Wedge D.C. , Alexandrov L.B. , Fu B. , Martincorena I. , Ning Z. , Tubio J.M. , Werner E.I. , Allen J. , other authors . ( 2014;). Transmissible [corrected] dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of an ancient cell lineage. Science 343: 437–440 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Murgia C. , Pritchard J.K. , Kim S.Y. , Fassati A. , Weiss R.A. . ( 2006;). Clonal origin and evolution of a transmissible cancer. Cell 126: 477–487 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Nagy K. , Clapham P. , Cheingsong-Popov R. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1983;). Human T-cell leukemia virus type I: induction of syncytia and inhibition by patients' sera. Int J Cancer 32: 321–328 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Neil J.C. , Fulton R. , Rigby M. , Stewart M. . ( 1991;). Feline leukaemia virus: generation of pathogenic and oncogenic variants. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 171: 67–93 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Nellåker C. , Keane T.M. , Yalcin B. , Wong K. , Agam A. , Belgard T.G. , Flint J. , Adams D.J. , Frankel W.N. , Ponting C.P. . ( 2012;). The genomic landscape shaped by selection on transposable elements across 18 mouse strains. Genome Biol 13: R45 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Niewiadomska A.M. , Gifford R.J. . ( 2013;). The extraordinary evolutionary history of the reticuloendotheliosis viruses. PLoS Biol 11: e1001642 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Owen R.D. . ( 1945;). Immunogenetic consequences of vascular anastomoses between bovine twins. Science 102: 400–401 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Pačes J. , Huang Y.T. , Pačes V. , Rídl J. , Chang C.M. . ( 2013;). New insight into transcription of human endogenous retroviral elements. N Biotechnol 30: 314–318 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Parker H.G. , Ostrander E.A. . ( 2014;). Hiding in plain view – an ancient dog in the modern world. Science 343: 376–378 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Patience C. , Takeuchi Y. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1997;). Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs. Nat Med 3: 282–286 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Payne L.N. , Chubb R.C. . ( 1968;). Studies on the nature and genetic control of an antigen in normal chick embryos which reacts in the COFAL test. J Gen Virol 3: 379–391 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Payne L.N. , Pani P.K. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1971;). A dominant epistatic gene which inhibits cellular susceptibility to RSV(RAV-O). J Gen Virol 13: 455–462 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Pearse A.M. , Swift K. . ( 2006;). Allograft theory: transmission of devil facial-tumour disease. Nature 439: 549 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Pellett P.E. , Ablashi D.V. , Ambros P.F. , Agut H. , Caserta M.T. , Descamps V. , Flamand L. , Gautheret-Dejean A. , Hall C.B. , other authors . ( 2012;). Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6: questions and answers. Rev Med Virol 22: 144–155 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Porter C.D. , Collins M.K.L. , Tailor C.S. , Parkar M.H. , Cosset F.-L. , Weiss R.A. , Takeuchi Y. . ( 1996;). Comparison of efficiency of infection of human gene therapy target cells via four different retroviral receptors. Hum Gene Ther 7: 913–919 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Rebbeck C.A. , Leroi A.M. , Burt A. . ( 2011;). Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science 331: 303 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Rebollo R. , Romanish M.T. , Mager D.L. . ( 2012;). Transposable elements: an abundant and natural source of regulatory sequences for host genes. Annu Rev Genet 46: 21–42 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Rechavi G. , Katzir N. , Ramot B. . ( 1991;). Kaposi's sarcoma among AIDS patients: transmissible venereal tumour by cell engraftment?. Med Hypotheses 34: 338–341 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Relander T. , Johansson M. , Olsson K. , Ikeda Y. , Takeuchi Y. , Collins M. , Richter J. . ( 2005;). Gene transfer to repopulating human CD34+ cells using amphotropic-, GALV-, or RD114-pseudotyped HIV-1-based vectors from stable producer cells. Mol Ther 11: 452–459 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Rinkevich B. . ( 2011;). Quo vadis chimerism?. Chimerism 2: 1–5 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Robbez-Masson L. , Rowe H.M. . ( 2015;). Retrotransposons shape species-specific embryonic stem cell networks. Retrovirology (in press) [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Rosenberg N. , Jolicoeur P. . ( 1997;). Retroviral pathogenesis. . In Retroviruses, pp. 475–585. Edited by Coffin J. M. , Hughes S. H. , Varmus H. E. . Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ross S.R. . ( 2010;). Mouse mammary tumor virus molecular biology and oncogenesis. Viruses 2: 2000–2012 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Rovnak J. , Quackenbush S.L. . ( 2010;). Walleye dermal sarcoma virus: molecular biology and oncogenesis. Viruses 2: 1984–1999 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Roy-Burman P. . ( 1995;). Endogenous env elements: partners in generation of pathogenic feline leukemia viruses. Virus Genes 11: 147–161 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Rubin H. . ( 1965;). Genetic control of cellular susceptibility to pseudotypes of Rous sarcoma virus. Virology 26: 270–276 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Salmons B. , Lawson J.S. , Günzburg W.H. . ( 2014;). Recent developments linking retroviruses to human breast cancer: infectious agent, enemy within or both?. J Gen Virol 95: 2589–2593 [PubMed].[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Sanz-Ramos M. , Stoye J.P. . ( 2013;). Capsid-binding retrovirus restriction factors: discovery, restriction specificity and implications for the development of novel therapeutics. J Gen Virol 94: 2587–2598 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Schmitt K. , Reichrath J. , Roesch A. , Meese E. , Mayer J. . ( 2013;). Transcriptional profiling of human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K(HML-2) loci in melanoma. Genome Biol Evol 5: 307–328 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Shimode S. , Nakagawa S. , Miyazawa T. . ( 2015;). Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes. Sci Rep 5: 8164 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Shojima T. , Yoshikawa R. , Hoshino S. , Shimode S. , Nakagawa S. , Ohata T. , Nakaoka R. , Miyazawa T. . ( 2013;). Identification of a novel subgroup of Koala retrovirus from Koalas in Japanese zoos. J Virol 87: 9943–9948 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Siddle H.V. , Kaufman J. . ( 2015;). Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours. Immunology 144: 11–20 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Simmons G. , Clarke D. , McKee J. , Young P. , Meers J. . ( 2014;). Discovery of a novel retrovirus sequence in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni): a putative link between gibbon ape leukemia virus and koala retrovirus. PLoS One 9: e106954 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Sommerfelt M.A. , Weiss R.A. . ( 1990;). Receptor interference groups of 20 retroviruses plating on human cells. Virology 176: 58–69 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Stehelin D. , Varmus H.E. , Bishop J.M. , Vogt P.K. . ( 1976;). DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA. Nature 260: 170–173 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Stewart H. , Jarrett O. , Hosie M.J. , Willett B.J. . ( 2011;). Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 143: 325–331 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Stoner D.S. , Weissman I.L. . ( 1996;). Somatic and germ cell parasitism in a colonial ascidian: possible role for a highly polymorphic allorecognition system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 15254–15259 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Stoye J.P. . ( 2012;). Studies of endogenous retroviruses reveal a continuing evolutionary saga. Nat Rev Microbiol 10: 395–406 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Strakova A. , Murchison E.P. . ( 2014;). The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour. BMC Vet Res 10: 168 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Subramanian R.P. , Wildschutte J.H. , Russo C. , Coffin J.M. . ( 2011;). Identification, characterization, and comparative genomic distribution of the HERV-K (HML-2) group of human endogenous retroviruses. Retrovirology 8: 90 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Tarlinton R.E. , Meers J. , Young P.R. . ( 2006;). Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 442: 79–81 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Temin H.M. , Rubin H. . ( 1958;). Characteristics of an assay for Rous sarcoma virus and Rous sarcoma cells in tissue culture. Virology 6: 669–688 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Temperton N.J. , Chan P.K. , Simmons G. , Zambon M.C. , Tedder R.S. , Takeuchi Y. , Weiss R.A. . ( 2005;). Longitudinally profiling neutralizing antibody response to SARS coronavirus with pseudotypes. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 411–416 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Temperton N.J. , Hoschler K. , Major D. , Nicolson C. , Manvell R. , Hien V.M. , Ha Q. , de Jong M. , Zambon M. , other authors . ( 2007;). A sensitive retroviral pseudotype assay for influenza H5N1-neutralizing antibodies. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 1: 105–112 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Varmus H.E. , Weiss R.A. , Friis R.R. , Levinson W. , Bishop J.M. . ( 1972;). Detection of avian tumor virus-specific nucleotide sequences in avian cell DNAs (reassociation kinetics-RNA tumor viruses-gas antigen-Rous sarcoma virus, chick cells). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 69: 20–24 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Venables P.J. , Brookes S.M. , Griffiths D. , Weiss R.A. , Boyd M.T. . ( 1995;). Abundance of an endogenous retroviral envelope protein in placental trophoblasts suggests a biological function. Virology 211: 589–592 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Villareal L.P. . ( 2005;). Viruses and the Evolution of Life p. 357 [CrossRef] Washington, DC: ASM Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Vincendeau M. , Göttesdorfer I. , Schreml J.M. , Wetie A.G. , Mayer J. , Greenwood A.D. , Helfer M. , Kramer S. , Seifarth W. , other authors . ( 2015;). Modulation of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) transcription during persistent and de novo HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology 12: 27 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Vogt P.K. . ( 1971;). Genetically stable reassortment of markers during mixed infection with avian tumor viruses. Virology 46: 947–952 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Vogt P.K. . ( 2012;). Retroviral oncogenes: a historical primer. Nat Rev Cancer 12: 639–648 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Vogt P.K. , Friis R.R. . ( 1971;). An avian leukosis virus related to RSV(0): Properties and evidence for helper activity. Virology 43: 223–234 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Weiss R.A. . ( 1969a;). The host range of Bryan strain Rous sarcoma virus synthesized in the absence of helper virus. J Gen Virol 32: 511–528 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Weiss R.A. . ( 1969b;). Interference and neutralization studies with Bryan strain Rous sarcoma virus synthesized in the absence of helper virus. J Gen Virol 5: 529–539 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Weiss R.A. . ( 1969c;). PhD Thesis, Studies of cell transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. University of London.. .
  115. Weiss R.A. . ( 2006;). The discovery of endogenous retroviruses. Retrovirology 3: 67 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Weiss R.A. , Fassati A. . ( 2015;). The clammy grip of parasitic tumors. Cell 161: 191–192 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Weiss R.A. , Stoye J.P. . ( 2013;). Our viral inheritance. Science 340: 820–821 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Weiss R.A. , Vogt P.K. . ( 2011;). 100 years of Rous sarcoma virus. J Exp Med 208: 2351–2355 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Weiss R.A. , Mason W.S. , Vogt P.K. . ( 1973;). Genetic recombinants and heterozygotes derived from endogenous and exogenous avian RNA tumor viruses. Virology 52: 535–552 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Wolfe L.G. , Deinhardt F. , Theilen G.H. , Rabin H. , Kawakami T. , Bustad L.K. . ( 1971;). Induction of tumors in marmoset monkeys by simian sarcoma virus, type 1 (Lagothrix): a preliminary report. J Natl Cancer Inst 47: 1115–1120 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Wright E. , Temperton N.J. , Marston D.A. , McElhinney L.M. , Fooks A.R. , Weiss R.A. . ( 2008;). Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison. J Gen Virol 89: 2204–2213 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Xu W. , Stadler C.K. , Gorman K. , Jensen N. , Kim D. , Zheng H. , Tang S. , Switzer W.M. , Pye G.W. , Eiden M.V. . ( 2013;). An exogenous retrovirus isolated from koalas with malignant neoplasias in a US zoo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: 11547–11552 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Závada J. . ( 1976;). Viral pseudotypes and phenotypic mixing. Arch Virol 50: 1–15 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000220
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/jgv.0.000220
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error