1887

Abstract

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a piscine retrovirus that replicates naturally in fish at temperatures near 4 °C. The reverse transcriptase (RT) protein from virus particles isolated from walleye tumours was purified and biochemically characterized. Like the RT of the distantly related murine leukaemia virus, WDSV RT sediments as a monomer in the absence of template. It exhibits a of 22 μM for TTP in an assay with poly(rA) as a template and oligo(dT) as a primer. The enzyme is rapidly inactivated at temperatures greater than 15 °C. The ratio of RT activity at 15 °C to that at 4 °C is similar for WDSV and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1, suggesting that, at least with this template, the fish enzyme is not specially adapted to function more efficiently in the cold.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1361
2002-06-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/83/6/0831361a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1361&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bowser, P. R., Wolfe, M. J., Forney, J. L. & Wooster, G. A. ( 1988; ). Seasonal prevalence of skin tumors from walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from Oneida Lake, New York. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24, 292-298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Fodor, S. K. & Vogt, V. M. (2002). Characterization of the protease of a fish retrovirus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus. Journal of Virology 76, (in press).
  3. Golomb, M. & Grandgenett, D. P. ( 1979; ). Endonuclease activity of purified RNA-directed DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry 254, 1606-1613.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Grandgenett, D. P., Vora, A. C. & Schiff, R. D. ( 1978; ). A 32,000-dalton nucleic acid-binding protein from avian retrovirus cores possesses DNA endonuclease activity. Virology 89, 119-132.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Grandgenett, D., Quinn, T., Hippenmeyer, P. J. & Oroszlan, S. ( 1985; ). Structural characterization of the avian retrovirus reverse transcriptase and endonuclease domains. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260, 8243-8249.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hansen, J., Schulze, T., Mellert, W. & Moelling, K. ( 1988; ). Identification and characterization of HIV-specific RNase H by monoclonal antibody. EMBO Journal 7, 239-243.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hizi, A., Tal, R., Shaharabany, M. & Loya, S. ( 1991; ). Catalytic properties of the reverse transcriptases of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and type 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 6230-6239.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Holzschu, D. L., Martineau, D., Fodor, S. K., Vogt, V. M., Bowser, P. R. & Casey, J. W. ( 1995; ). Nucleotide sequence and protein analysis of a complex piscine retrovirus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus. Journal of Virology 69, 5320-5331.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hostomsky, Z., Hostomska, Z., Hudson, G. O., Moomaw, E. W. & Nodes, B. R. ( 1991; ). Reconstitution in vitro of RNase H activity by using purified N-terminal and C-terminal domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88, 1148-1152.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Johnson, M. S., McClure, M. A., Feng, D. F., Gray, J. & Doolittle, R. F. ( 1986; ). Computer analysis of retroviral pol genes: assignment of enzymatic functions to specific sequences and homologies with nonviral enzymes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 83, 7648-7652.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lairmore, M. D., Stanley, J. R., Weber, S. A. & Holzschu, D. L. ( 2000; ). Squamous epithelial proliferation induced by walleye dermal sarcoma retrovirus cyclin in transgenic mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 6114-6119.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. LaPierre, L. A., Casey, J. W. & Holzschu, D. L. ( 1998; ). Walleye retroviruses associated with skin tumors and hyperplasias encode cyclin D homologs. Journal of Virology 72, 8765-8771.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. LaPierre, L. A., Holzschu, D. L., Bowser, P. R. & Casey, J. W. ( 1999; ). Sequence and transcriptional analyses of the fish retroviruses walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus types 1 and 2: evidence for a gene duplication. Journal of Virology 73, 9393-9403.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Le Grice, S. F. & Gruninger-Leitch, F. ( 1990; ). Rapid purification of homodimer and heterodimer HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by metal chelate affinity chromatography. European Journal of Biochemistry 187, 307-314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Le Grice, S. F., Cameron, C. E. & Benkovic, S. J. ( 1995; ). Purification and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. Methods in Enzymology 262, 130-144.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Martineau, D., Renshaw, R., Williams, J. R., Casey, J. W. & Bowser, P. R. ( 1991; ). A large unintegrated retrovirus DNA species present in a dermal tumor of walleye Stizostedion vitreum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 10, 153-158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Martineau, D., Bowser, P. R., Renshaw, R. R. & Casey, J. W. ( 1992; ). Molecular characterization of a unique retrovirus associated with a fish tumor. Journal of Virology 66, 596-599.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mizrahi, V. ( 1989; ). Analysis of the ribonuclease H activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using RNA–DNA hybrid substrates derived from the gag region of HIV-1. Biochemistry 28, 9088-9094.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mizrahi, V., Lazarus, G. M., Miles, L. M., Meyers, C. A. & Debouck, C. ( 1989; ). Recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: purification, primary structure, and polymerase/ribonuclease H activities. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 273, 347-358.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Papas, T. S., Dahlberg, J. E. & Sonstegard, R. A. ( 1976; ). Type C virus in lymphosarcoma in northern pike (Esox lucius). Nature 261, 506-508.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Papas, T. S., Pry, T. W., Schafer, M. P. & Sonstegard, R. A. ( 1977; ). Presence of DNA polymerase in lymphosarcoma in northern pike (Esox lucius). Cancer Research 37, 3214-3217.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Prasad, V. R. & Goff, S. P. ( 1989; ). Linker insertion mutagenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase expressed in bacteria: definition of the minimal polymerase domain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86, 3104-3108.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Quackenbush, S. L., Holzschu, D. L., Bowser, P. R. & Casey, J. W. ( 1997; ). Transcriptional analysis of walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV). Virology 237, 107-112.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ricchetti, M. & Buc, H. ( 1990; ). Reverse transcriptases and genomic variability: the accuracy of DNA replication is enzyme specific and sequence dependent. EMBO Journal 9, 1583-1593.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Roth, M. J., Tanese, N. & Goff, S. P. ( 1985; ). Purification and characterization of murine retroviral reverse transcriptase expressed in Escherichia coli. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260, 9326-9335.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tanese, N. & Goff, S. P. ( 1988; ). Domain structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: mutational analysis and separate expression of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 1777-1781.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Taube, R., Loya, S., Avidan, O., Perach, M. & Hizi, A. ( 1998; ). Reverse transcriptase of mouse mammary tumour virus: expression in bacteria, purification and biochemical characterization. Biochemical Journal 329, 579-587.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Telesnitsky, A. & Goff, S. P. ( 1993; ). RNase H domain mutations affect the interaction between Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and its primer-template. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 1276-1280.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Telesnitsky, A., Blain, S. & Goff, S. P. ( 1995; ). Assays for retroviral reverse transcriptase. Methods in Enzymology 262, 347-362.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. van Regenmortel, M. H. V., Fauquet, C. M., Bishop, D. H. L., Carstens, E. B., Estes, M. K., Lemon, S. M., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M. A., McGeoch, D. J., Pringle, C. R. & Wickner, R. B. (editors) (2000). Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press.
  31. Verma, I. M. ( 1975; ). Studies on reverse transcriptase of RNA tumor viruses. III. Properties of purified Moloney murine leukemia virus DNA polymerase and associated RNase H. Journal of Virology 15, 843-854.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Veronese, F. D., Copeland, T. D., DeVico, A. L., Rahman, R., Oroszlan, S., Gallo, R. C. & Sarngadharan, M. G. ( 1986; ). Characterization of highly immunogenic p66/p51 as the reverse transcriptase of HTLV-III/LAV. Science 231, 1289-1291.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1361
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1361
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error