1887

Abstract

Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus indicated that they had not acquired the NA from H3N2 swine viruses circulating in continental Europe. Moreover, antigenic and genetic heterogeneity among the H1N2 viruses appeared to be due in part to multiple introductions of viruses from the UK. On the other hand, comparisons of internal gene sequences indicated genetic exchange between the H1N2 viruses and co-circulating H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Most genes of the earlier (1997–1998) H1N2 isolates were more closely related to those of a contemporary French H1N1 isolate, whereas the genes of later (1999–2000) isolates, including the HAs of some H1N2 viruses, were closely related to those of a distinct H1N1 antigenic variant which emerged in France in 1999. In contrast, an H3N2 virus isolated in France in 1999 was closely related antigenically and genetically to contemporary human A/Sydney/5/97-like viruses. These studies reveal interesting parallels between genetic and antigenic drift of H1N1 viruses in pig and human populations, and provide further examples of the contribution of genetic reassortment to the antigenic and genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses and the importance of the complement of internal genes in the evolution of epizootic strains.

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2002-04-01
2019-10-17
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