1887

Abstract

multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) contains a number of genes with a homologue found so far only in a distantly related baculovirus. One of these, SeMNPV ORF17/18 (Se17/18) shares 55% amino acid similarity to ORF129 of granulovirus (XcGV). Se17/18 was transcribed in cultured 301 cells, as a polyadenylated transcript of 1·1 kb. 5′-RACE analysis demonstrated that Se17/18 transcripts started at 134, 131 and 126 nt upstream of the putative translational start codon. These sites overlap with a baculovirus consensus early promoter motif. Se17/18 transcripts were detected by Northern blot analysis and RT–PCR with increasing abundance from 8 h to 24 h post infection (p.i.) and still present until 72 h p.i. A C-terminal GFP-fusion protein of Se17/18 was primarily localized in the cytoplasm of Se301 and Sf21 cells. A chicken polyclonal antiserum was raised that reacted specifically to Se17/18 protein produced in . However, no immunoreactive protein was detected in SeMNPV-infected Se301 cells and larvae, neither in concentrated BV and ODV preparations. These observations and the inability to detect a C-terminal GFP-fusion protein of Se17/18 in Se301 cells using a GFP antibody suggest that Se17/18 protein is present, if at all, in spurious amounts. Based on the low homology of the Se17/18 protein to (methyl) transferases its possible involvement in transcription regulation is discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-11-2857
2002-11-01
2021-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/83/11/0832857a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-11-2857&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S. F., Madden T. L., Schäffer A. A., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Miller W., Lipman D. J. 1997; Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25:3389–3402
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Appel R. D., Bairoch A., Hochstrasser D. F. 1994; A new generation of information retrieval tools for biologists: the example of the ExPASy WWW server. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 19:258–260
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ausubel F. M., Brent R., Kingston R. E., Moore D. D., Seidman J. G., Smith J. A., Struhl K. 1994 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology New York: Greene and Wiley-Interscience;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ayres M. D., Howard S. C., Kuzio J., Lopez-Ferber M., Possee R. D. 1994; The complete DNA sequence of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 202:586–605
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blissard G. W., Rohrmann G. F. 1989; Location, sequence, transcriptional mapping, and temporal expression of the gp64 envelope glycoprotein gene of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 170:537–555
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blissard G. W., Rohrmann G. F. 1990; Baculovirus diversity and molecular biology. Annual Review of Entomology 35:127–155
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chen X., IJkel W. F. J., Tarchini R., Sun X., Sandbrink H., Wang H., Peters S., Zuidema D., Lankhorst R. K., Vlak J. M., Hu Z. 2001; The sequence of the Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. Journal of General Virology 82:241–257
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cherbas L., Cherbas P. 1993; The arthropod initiator: the capsite consensus plays an important role in transcription. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 23:81–90
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dai X., Hajós J. P., Joosten N. N., van Oers M. M., IJkel W. F. J., Zuidema D., Pang Y., Vlak J. M. 2000; Isolation of a Spodoptera exigua baculovirus recombinant with a 10·6 kbp genome deletion that retains biological activity. Journal of General Virology 81:2545–2554
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Devereux J., Haeberli P., Smithies O. 1984; A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Research 12:387–395
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Durantel D., Croizier L., Ayres M. D., Croizier G., Possee R. D., Lopez-Ferber M. 1998a; The pnk/pnl gene (ORF86) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a non-essential, immediate early gene. Journal of General Virology 79:629–637
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Durantel D., Croizier G., Ravallec M., Lopez-Ferber M. 1998b; Temporal expression of the AcMNPV lef-4 gene and subcellular localization of the protein. Virology 241:276–284
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Federici B. A., Maddox J. V. 1996; Host specificity in microbe-insect interactions. Bioscience 46:410–421
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Friesen P. D. 1997; Regulation of baculovirus early gene expression. In The Baculoviruses pp 141–170 Edited by Miller L. K. New York: Plenum;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gelernter W. D., Federici B. A. 1986; Isolation, identification and determination of virulence of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology 15:240–245
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gomi S., Majima K., Maeda S. 1999; Sequence analysis of the genome of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of General Virology 80:1323–1337
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hara K., Funakoshi M., Kawarabata T. 1995; A cloned cell line of Spodoptera exigua has a highly increased susceptibility to the Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41:1111–1116
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hayakawa T., Ko R., Okano K., Seong S.-I., Goto C., Maeda S. 1999; Sequence analysis of the Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus genome. Virology 262:277–297
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Heldens J. G. M., van Strien E. A., Feldmann A. M., Kulcsár P., Muñoz D., Leisy D. J., Zuidema D., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M. 1996; Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus deletion mutants generated in cell culture lack virulence in vivo . Journal of General Virology 77:3127–3134
    [Google Scholar]
  20. IJkel W. F. J., van Strien E. A., Heldens J. G., Broer R., Zuidema D., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M. 1999; Sequence and organization of the Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. Journal of General Virology 80:3289–3304
    [Google Scholar]
  21. IJkel W. F. J., Westenberg M., Goldbach R. W., Blissard G. W., Vlak J. M., Zuidema D. 2000; A novel baculovirus envelope fusion protein with a proprotein cleavage site. Virology 275:30–41
    [Google Scholar]
  22. IJkel W. F. J., Lebbink R. J., Op den Brouw M. L., Goldbach R. W., Blissard G. W., Vlak J. M., Zuidema D. 2001; Identification of a novel occlusion derived virus-specific protein in Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology 284:170–181
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kang W., Suzuki M., Zemskov E., Okano K., Maeda S. 1999; Characterization of baculovirus repeated open reading frames ( bro ) in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Journal of Virology 73:10339–10345
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kogan P. H., Blissard G. W. 1994; A baculovirus gp64 early promoter is activated by host transcription factor binding to CACGTG and GATA elements. Journal of Virology 68:813–822
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kogan P. H., Chen X., Blissard G. W. 1995; Overlapping TATA-dependent and TATA-independent early promoter activities in the baculovirus gp64 envelope fusion protein gene. Journal of Virology 69:1452–1461
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kuzio J., Pearson M. N., Harwood S. H., Funk C. J., Evans J. T., Slavicek J. M., Rohrmann G. F. 1999; Sequence and analysis of the genome of a baculovirus pathogenic for Lymantria dispar . Virology 253:17–34
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Laemmli U. K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lu A., Miller L. K. 1995; The roles of eighteen baculovirus late expression factor genes in transcription and DNA replication. Journal of Virology 69:975–982
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Muñoz D., Castillejo J. I., Caballero P. 1998; Naturally occurring deletion mutants are parasitic genotypes in a wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus population of Spodoptera exigua . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:4372–4377
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pearson W. R. 1990; Rapid and sensitive sequence comparison with FASTP and FASTA. Methods in Enzymology 183:63–98
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Pijlman G. P., Dortmans J. C. F. M., Vermeesch A. M. G., Kai Y., Martens D. E., Goldbach R. W., Vlak J. M. 2002; Pivotal role of the non-hr origin of DNA replication in the genesis of defective interfering baculoviruses. Journal of Virology 76:5605–5611
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pullen S. S., Friesen P. D. 1995; Early transcription of the ie-1 transregulator gene of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus is regulated by DNA sequences within its 5′ noncoding leader region. Journal of Virology 67:5776–5785
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Reinhardt A., Hubbard T. 1998; Using neural networks for prediction of the subcellular location of proteins. Nucleic Acids Research 26:2230–2236
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Roeder R. G. 1991; The complexities of eukaryotic transcription initiation: regulation of preinitiation complex assembly. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 16:402–408
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Rost B. 1996; PHD: predicting one-dimensional protein structure by profile based neural networks. Methods in Enzymology 266:525–539
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smits P. H. 1987; Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua . PhD thesis Wageningen Agricultural University; The Netherlands:
  37. Smits P. H., Vlak J. M. 1988; Quantitative and qualitative aspects in the production of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus in Spodoptera exigua larvae. Annals of Applied Biology 112:249–257
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Vaughn J. L., Goodwin R. H., Tompkins G. J., McCawley P. 1977; The establishment of two cell lines from the insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae). In Vitro 13:213–217
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-11-2857
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-83-11-2857
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error