1887

Abstract

The distribution of virus-infected cells in cynomolgus macaques was determined at 4, 7, 14 and 28 days following intravenous challenge with 1000 TCID of the wild-type simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmacJ5 (stock J5C). At each time-point, pairs of macaques were killed humanely and the presence of SIV was determined and quantified in blood, spleen, peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus, lung and ileum by virus co-cultivation with C8166 cells, by quantitative DNA PCR or by hybridization (ISH). At day 4 post-infection (p.i.), detection of the virus was sporadic. By day 7 p.i., however, significant SIV loads were detected in the blood and lymphoid tissues by DNA PCR and virus co-cultivation. Large numbers of cells expressing SIV RNA were detected in mesenteric lymph nodes by ISH and significantly fewer (<0·05) in the spleen. Significant numbers of ISH-positive cells were also observed in sections of ileum. By day 14 p.i., the distribution of SIV was more even in all lymphoid tissues analysed. By day 28, most of the tissues were negative by ISH, but all remained positive by virus isolation and DNA PCR. Immunolabelling of sections of mesenteric lymph node with monoclonal antibodies specific for SIV envelope and Nef largely confirmed the observations from ISH. These results indicate that, even following intravenous challenge, a major site of the initial replication of SIV is gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Vaccines that induce protection at this site may therefore be superior, even against parenteral challenge.

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2001-09-01
2019-09-18
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