1887

Abstract

Influenza virus A/Hong Kong/1774/99, isolated from a young child with mild influenza, was shown to be similar in its antigenic and genetic characteristics to H3N2 viruses circulating in pigs in Europe during the 1990s and in particular to be closely related to viruses isolated from two children in the Netherlands in 1993. Similar viruses had previously not been identified outside Europe. Although there is little evidence as to how the child contracted the infection, it appears likely that pigs in southern China were the source of infection. Characteristics shared with the European swine viruses include resistance to the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. Thus not only does this incident once again highlight the potential of pigs as a source of novel human influenza viruses, but also indicates the potential for emergence of amantadine-resistant human viruses.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-6-1397
2001-06-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/6/0821397a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-6-1397&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Belshe, R. B., Hall Smith, M., Hall, C. B., Betts, R. & Hay, A. J. ( 1988; ). Genetic basis of resistance to rimantadine emerging during treatment of influenza virus infection. Journal of Virology 62, 1508-1512.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bender, C., Hall, H., Huang, J., Klimov, A., Cox, N., Hay, A., Gregory, V., Cameron, K., Lim, W. & Subbarao, K. ( 1999; ). Characterization of the surface proteins of influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans in 1997–1998. Virology 254, 115-123.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bikour, M. H., Frost, E. H., Deslandes, S., Talbot, B., Weber, J. M. & Elazhary, Y. ( 1995; ). Recent H3N2 swine influenza virus with haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes similar to 1975 human strains. Journal of General Virology 76, 697-703.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, I. H., Harris, P. A., McCauley, J. W. & Alexander, D. J. ( 1998; ). Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype. Journal of General Virology 79, 2947-2955.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Campitelli, L., Donatelli, I., Foni, E., Castrucci, M. R., Fabiani, C., Kawaoka, Y., Krauss, S. & Webster, R. G. ( 1997; ). Continued evolution of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses in pigs in Italy. Virology 232, 310-318.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Castrucci, M. R., Donatelli, I., Sidoli, L., Barigazzi, G., Kawaoka, Y. & Webster, R. G. ( 1993; ). Genetic reassortant between avian and human influenza A viruses in Italian pigs. Virology 193, 503-506.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Claas, E. C. J., Kawaoka, Y., De Jong, J. C., Masurel, N. & Webster, R. G. ( 1994; ). Infection of children with avian-human reassortant influenza virus from pigs in Europe. Virology 204, 453-457.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Claas, E. C. J., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., van Beek, R., De Jong, J. C., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Senne, D. A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K. & Webster, R. G. ( 1998; ). Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet 351, 472-477.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Goldfield, M., Bartley, J. D., Pizutti, W., Black, H. C., Altman, R. & Halperin, W. E. ( 1977; ). Influenza in New Jersey in 1976: isolations of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus at Fort Dix. Journal of Infectious Diseases 136, 347-355.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gorman, O. T., Bean, W. J., Kawaoka, Y., Donatelli, I., Guo, Y. & Webster, R. G. ( 1991; ). Evolution of influenza A virus nucleoprotein genes: implications for the origins of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses. Journal of Virology 65, 3704-3714.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Guan, Y., Shortridge, K. F., Krauss, S., Li, P. H., Kawaoka, Y. & Webster, R. G. ( 1996; ). Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China. Journal of Virology 70, 8041-8046.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hinshaw, V. S., Bean, W. J., Webster, R. G. & Easterday, B. C. ( 1978; ). The prevalence of influenza viruses in swine and the antigenic and genetic relatedness of influenza viruses from man and swine. Virology 84, 51-62.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kendal, A. P., Pereira, M. S. & Skehel, J. J. (1982). Concepts and Procedures for Laboratory-based Influenza Surveillance. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  14. Kundin, W. D. ( 1970; ). Hong Kong A-2 influenza virus infection among swine during a human epidemic in Taiwan. Nature 228, 857.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lin, Y. P., Shaw, M., Gregory, V., Cameron, K., Lim, W., Klimov, A., Subbarao, K., Guan, Y., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K., Webster, R., Cox, N. & Hay, A. ( 2000; ). Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 9654-9658.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McFerran, J. B., Sandford, J. C., Connor, T. J. & Clarke, J. K. ( 1972; ). Influenza A virus in pigs. Lancet ii, 536.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mancini, G., Donatelli, I., Rozera, C., Arangio Ruiz, G. & Butto, S. ( 1985; ). Antigenic and biochemical analysis of influenza ‘A’ H3N2 viruses isolated from pigs. Archives of Virology 83, 157-167.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nerome, K., Ishida, M., Nakayama, M., Oya, A., Kanai, C. & Suwicha, K. ( 1981; ). Antigenic and genetic analysis of A/Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza viruses isolated from swine and man. Journal of General Virology 56, 441-445.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nerome, K., Kanegae, Y., Shortridge, K. F., Sugita, S. & Ishida, M. ( 1995; ). Genetic analysis of porcine H3N2 viruses originating in southern China. Journal of General Virology 76, 613-624.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ottis, K., Sidoli, L., Bachmann, P. A., Webster, R. G. & Kaplan, M. M. ( 1982; ). Human influenza A viruses in pigs: isolation of a H3N2 strain antigenically related to A/England/42/72 and evidence for continuous circulation of human viruses in the pig population. Archives of Virology 73, 103-108.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Patriarca, P. A., Kendal, A. P., Zakowski, P. C., Cox, N. J., Trautman, M. S., Cherry, J. D., Auerbach, D. M., McCusker, J., Belliveau, R. R. & Kappus, K. D. ( 1984; ). Lack of significant person-to-person spread of swine influenza-like virus following fatal infection in an immunocompromised child. American Journal of Epidemiology 119, 152-158.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pensaert, M., Ottis, K., Vandeputte, J., Kaplan, M. M. & Bachmann, P. A. ( 1981; ). Evidence for the natural transmission of influenza A virus from wild ducks to swine and its potential importance for man. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 59, 75-78.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reid, A. H., Fanning, T. G., Hultin, J. V. & Taubenberger, J. K. ( 1999; ). Origin and evolution of the 1918 ‘‘Spanish’’ influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 1651-1656.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rota, P. A., Rocha, E. P., Harmon, M. W., Hinshaw, V. S., Sheerar, M. G., Kawaoka, Y., Cox, N. J. & Smith, T. F. ( 1989; ). Laboratory characterization of a swine influenza virus isolated from a fatal case of human influenza. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 27, 1413-1416.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Scholtissek, C., Burger, H., Kistner, O. & Shortridge, K. F. ( 1985; ). The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses. Virology 147, 287-294.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Shope, R. E. ( 1931; ). Swine influenza. III. Filtration experiments and aetiology. Journal of Experimental Medicine 54, 373-385.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shortridge, K. F. & Stuart-Harris, C. H. ( 1982; ). An influenza epicentre? Lancet ii, 812-813.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shortridge, K. F., Webster, R. G., Butterfield, W. K. & Campbell, C. H. ( 1977; ). Persistence of Hong Kong influenza virus variants in pigs. Science 196, 1454-1455.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Shu, L. L., Lin, Y. P., Wright, S. M., Shortridge, K. F. & Webster, R. G. ( 1994; ). Evidence for interspecies transmission and reassortment of influenza A viruses in pigs in southern China. Virology 202, 825-833.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Subbarao, K., Klimov, A., Katz, J., Regnery, H., Lim, W., Hall, H., Perdue, M., Swayne, D., Bender, C., Huang, J., Hemphill, M., Rowe, T., Shaw, M., Xu, X., Fukuda, K. & Cox, N. ( 1998; ). Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science 279, 393-396.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tumova, B., Veznikova, D., Mensik, J. & Stumpa, A. ( 1980; ). Surveillance of influenza in pig herds in Czechoslovakia in 1974–1979. I. Introduction of influenza epidemic A (H3N2) viruses in pig herds. Zentralblatt für Veterinaermedizin Beiheft/Reihe B 27, 517-523.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wells, D. L., Hopfensperger, D. J. & Arden, N. H. ( 1991; ). Swine influenza virus infections: transmission from ill pigs to humans at a Wisconsin Agricultural Fair and subsequent probable person-to-person transmission. Journal of the American Medical Association 265, 478-481.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wentworth, D. E., Thompson, B. L., Xu, X., Regnery, H. L., Cooley, A. J., McGregor, M. W., Cox, N. J. & Hinshaw, V. S. ( 1994; ). An influenza A (H1N1) virus, closely related to swine influenza virus, responsible for a fatal case of human influenza. Journal of Virology 68, 2051-2058.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Zhou, N. N., Senne, D. A., Landgraf, J. S., Swenson, S. L., Erickson, G., Rossow, K., Liu, L., Yoon, K.-Y., Krauss, S. & Webster, R. G. ( 1999; ). Genetic reassortment of avian, swine, and human influenza A viruses in American pigs. Journal of Virology 73, 8851-8856.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-6-1397
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-6-1397
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error