1887

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six clades as a result of high genetic variability. In the Seine-Saint-Denis district of north-east Paris, the prevalence of HCV-4, which usually infects populations from Africa or the Middle East, is twice as high as that recorded for the whole of continental France (10·2 versus 4·5%). Although the pathogenicity of HCV-4 remains unknown, resistance of HCV-4 to therapy appears to be similar to that observed for HCV-1. In order to characterize the epidemiology of HCV-4 in Paris, sequences of the non-structural 5B gene (332 bp) were obtained from 38 HCV-4-infected patients. Extensive phylogenetic analyses indicated seven different HCV-4 subtypes. Moreover, phylogenetic tree topologies clearly distinguished two epidemiological profiles. The first profile (52·6% of patients) reflects the intra-suburban emergence of two distinct HCV-4 subclades occurring mainly among intravenous drug users (65% of patients). The second profile shows six subclades [HCV-4a, -4f, -4h, -4k, -4a(B) and a new sequence] and accounts for patients from Africa (Egypt and sub-Saharan countries) who have unknown risk factors (77·8% of patients) and in whom no recent diffusion of HCV-4 is evident. This study indicates the high diversity of HCV-4 and the extension of HCV-4a and -4d subclades among drug users in France.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1001
2001-05-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/5/0821001a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1001&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Angelico, M., Renganathan, E., Gandin, C., Fathy, M., Profili, M. C., Refai, W., De Santis, A., Nagi, A., Amin, G., Capocaccia, L., Callea, F., Rapicetta, M., Badr, G. & Rocchi, G. ( 1997; ). Chronic liver disease in the Alexandria governorate, Egypt: contribution of schistosomiasis and hepatitis virus infections. Journal of Hepatology 26, 236-243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bukh, J., Purcell, R. H. & Miller, R. H. ( 1993; ). At least 12 genotypes of hepatitis C virus predicted by sequence analysis of the putative E1 gene of isolates collected worldwide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 8234-8238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Castelain, S., Zawadzki, P., Khorsi, H., Darchis, J. P., Capron, D., Sueur, J. M., Eb, F. & Duverlie, G. ( 1997; ). Comparison of hepatitis C virus serotyping and genotyping in French patients. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology 7, 159-165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chamberlain, R. W., Adams, N., Saeed, A. A., Simmonds, P. & Elliott, R. M. ( 1997; ). Complete nucleotide sequence of a type 4 hepatitis C virus variant, the predominant genotype in the Middle East. Journal of General Virology 78, 1341-1347.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Choo, Q. L., Richman, K. H., Han, J. H., Berger, K., Lee, C., Dong, C., Gallegos, C., Coit, D., Medina-Selby, R., Barr, P. J., Weiner, A. J., Bradley, D., Kuo, G. & Houghton, M. ( 1991; ). Genetic organization and diversity of the hepatitis C virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88, 2451-2455.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Darwish, M. A., Raouf, T. A., Rushdy, P., Constantine, N. T., Rao, M. R. & Edelman, R. ( 1993; ). Risk factors associated with a high seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Egyptian blood donors. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 49, 440-447.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. de Lamballerie, X., Charrel, R. N., Attoui, H. & De Micco, P. ( 1997; ). Classification of hepatitis C virus variants in six major types based on analysis of the envelope 1 and nonstructural 5B genome regions and complete polyprotein sequences. Journal of General Virology 78, 45-51.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Di Bisceglie, A. M. ( 2000; ). Natural history of hepatitis C: its impact on clinical management. Hepatology 31, 1014-1018.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. el-Zayadi, A., Simmonds, P., Dabbous, H., Prescott, L., Selim, O. & Ahdy, A. ( 1996; ). Response to interferon α of Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 4. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 3, 261-264.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. el-Zayadi, A., Selim, O., Haddad, S., Simmonds, P., Hamdy, H., Badran, H. M. & Shawky, S. ( 1999; ). Combination treatment of interferon α-2b and ribavirin in comparison to interferon monotherapy in treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 31, 472-475.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Felsenstein, J. ( 1989; ). PHYLIP: Phylogeny Inference Package, version 3.572. Cladistics 5, 164-166.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fretz, C., Jeannel, D., Stuyver, L., Herve, V., Lunel, F., Boudifa, A., Mathiot, C., de The, G. & Fournel, J. J. ( 1995; ). HCV infection in a rural population of the Central African Republic (CAR): evidence for three additional subtypes of genotype 4. Journal of Medical Virology 47, 435-437.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fujimura, Y., Ishimoto, S., Shimoyama, T., Narita, N., Kuze, Y., Yoshioka, A., Fukui, H., Tanaka, T., Tsuda, F., Okamoto, H., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1996; ). Genotypes and multiple infections with hepatitis C virus in patients with haemophilia A in Japan. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 3, 79-84.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hibbs, R. G., Corwin, A. L., Hassan, N. F., Kamel, M., Darwish, M., Edelman, R., Constantine, N. T., Rao, M. R., Khalifa, A. S., Mokhtar, S. and others ( 1993; ). The epidemiology of antibody to hepatitis C in Egypt. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168, 789–790.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Holmes, E. C., Bollyky, P. L., Nee, S., Rambaut, A., Garnett, G. P. & Harvey, P. H. ( 1996; ). Using phylogenetic trees to reconstruct the history of infectious disease epidemics. In New Uses for New Phylogenies , pp. 169-186. Edited by P. H. Harvey, A. J. Leigh-Braun, J. Maynard-Smith & S. Nee. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  16. Le Pogam, S., Le Chapois, D., Christen, R., Dubois, F., Barin, F. & Goudeau, A. ( 1998; ). Hepatitis C in a hemodialysis unit: molecular evidence for nosocomial transmission. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, 3040-3043.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Leruez-Ville, M., Nguyen, Q. T., Cohen, P., Cocco, S., Nouyou, M., Ferriere, F. & Deny, P. ( 1998; ). Large-scale analysis of hepatitis C virus serological typing assay: effectiveness and limits. Journal of Medical Virology 55, 18-23.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Martell, M., Esteban, J. I., Quer, J., Genesca, J., Weiner, A., Esteban, R., Guardia, J. & Gomez, J. ( 1992; ). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates as a population of different but closely related genomes: quasispecies nature of HCV genome distribution. Journal of Virology 66, 3225-3229.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Martinot-Peignoux, M., Boyer, N., Pouteau, M., Castelnau, C., Giuily, N., Duchatelle, V., Auperin, A., Degott, C., Benhamou, J. P., Erlinger, S. & Marcellin, P. ( 1998; ). Predictors of sustained response to alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Hepatology 29, 214-223.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martinot-Peignoux, M., Roudot-Thoraval, F., Mendel, I., Coste, J., Izopet, J., Duverlie, G., Payan, C., Pawlotsky, J. M., Defer, C., Bogard, M., Gerolami, V., Halfon, P., Buisson, Y., Fouqueray, B., Loiseau, P., Lamoril, J., Lefrere, J. J. & Marcellin, P. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis C virus genotypes in France: relationship with epidemiology, pathogenicity and response to interferon therapy. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 6, 435-443.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mellor, J., Holmes, E. C., Jarvis, L. M., Yap, P. L., Simmonds, P. & The International HCV Collaborative Study Group ( 1995; ). Investigation of the pattern of hepatitis C virus sequence diversity in different geographical regions: implications for virus classification. Journal of General Virology 76, 2493–2507.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nousbaum, J. B., Pol, S., Nalpas, B., Landais, P., Berthelot, P. & Brechot, C. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis C virus type 1b (II) infection in France and Italy. Collaborative Study Group. Annals of Internal Medicine 122, 161-168.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Page, R. D. ( 1996; ). TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 12, 357-358.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pawlotsky, J. M., Roudot-Thoraval, F., Bastie, A., Darthuy, F., Remire, J., Metreau, J. M., Zafrani, E. S., Duval, J. & Dhumeaux, D. ( 1996; ). Factors affecting treatment responses to interferon-α in chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, 1-7.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Poynard, T., Marcellin, P., Lee, S. S., Niederau, C., Minuk, G. S., Ideo, G., Bain, V., Heathcote, J., Zeuzem, S., Trepo, C. & Albrecht, J. ( 1998; ). Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (IHIT). Lancet 352, 1426-1432.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rapicetta, M., Argentini, C., Dettori, S., Spada, E., Pellizzer, G. & Gandin, C. ( 1998; ). Molecular heterogeneity and new subtypes of HCV genotype 4. Research in Virology 149, 293-297.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ray, S. C., Arthur, R. R., Carella, A., Bukh, J. & Thomas, D. L. ( 2000; ). Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis C virus throughout Egypt. Journal of Infectious Diseases 182, 698-707.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Remy, A. J., Verdier, E., Perney, P., Ducos, J., Blanc, P., Blanc, F. & Larrey, D. ( 1998; ). Route of infection, liver histology and response to interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis caused by genotype 4 HCV infection in a Western country. Journal of Hepatology 29, 169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Robertson, B., Myers, G., Howard, C., Brettin, T., Bukh, J., Gaschen, B., Gojobori, T., Maertens, G., Mizokami, M., Nainan, O., Netesov, S., Nishioka, K., Shin-i, T., Simmonds, P., Smith, D., Stuyver, L. & Weiner, A. ( 1998; ). Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization. International Committee on Virus Taxonomy. Archives of Virology 143, 2493-2503.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sanchez-Quijano, A., Abad, M. A., Torronteras, R., Rey, C., Pineda, J. A., Leal, M., Macias, J. & Lissen, E. ( 1997; ). Unexpected high prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Southern Spain. Journal of Hepatology 27, 25-29.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shemer-Avni, Y., el Astal, Z., Kemper, O., el Najjar, K. J., Yaari, A., Hanuka, N., Margalith, M. & Sikuler, E. ( 1998; ). Hepatitis C virus infection and genotypes in Southern Israel and the Gaza Strip. Journal of Medical Virology 56, 230-233.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Shobokshi, O. A., Serebour, F. E., Skakni, L., Al-Saffy, Y. H. & Ahdal, M. N. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis C genotypes and subtypes in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Virology 58, 44-48.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Simmonds, P., Holmes, E. C., Cha, T.-A., Chan, S.-W., McOmish, F., Irvine, B., Beall, E., Yap, P. L., Kolberg, J. & Urdea, M. S. ( 1993a; ). Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region. Journal of General Virology 74, 2391-2399.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Simmonds, P., McOmish, F., Yap, P.-L., Chan, S.-W., Lin, C. K., Dusheiko, G., Saeed, A. A. & Holmes, E. C. ( 1993b; ). Sequence variability in the 5′ non-coding region of hepatitis C virus: identification of a new virus type and restrictions on sequence diversity. Journal of General Virology 74, 661-668.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Simmonds, P., Mellor, J., Sakuldamrongpanich, T., Nuchaprayoon, C., Tanprasert, S., Holmes, E. C. & Smith, D. B. ( 1996; ). Evolutionary analysis of variants of hepatitis C virus found in South-East Asia: comparison with classifications based upon sequence similarity. Journal of General Virology 77, 3013-3024.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smith, D. B., Pathirana, S., Davidson, F., Lawlor, E., Power, J., Yap, P. L. & Simmonds, P. ( 1997; ). The origin of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Journal of General Virology 78, 321-328.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Spada, E., Ciccaglione, A. R., Dettori, S., Chionne, P., Kondili, L. A., Amoroso, P., Guadagnino, V., Greco, M. & Rapicetta, M. ( 1998; ). Genotyping HCV isolates from Italy by type-specific PCR assay in the core region. Research in Virology 149, 209-218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Stuyver, L., van Arnhem, W., Wyseur, A., Hernandez, F., Delaporte, E. & Maertens, G. ( 1994; ). Classification of hepatitis C viruses based on phylogenetic analysis of the envelope 1 and nonstructural 5B regions and identification of five additional subtypes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91, 10134-10138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Stuyver, L., Wyseur, A., van Arnhem, W., Lunel, F., Laurent-Puig, P., Pawlotsky, J. M., Kleter, B., Bassit, L., Nkengasong, J., van Doorn, L. J. and others ( 1995; ). Hepatitis C virus genotyping by means of 5′-UR/core line probe assays and molecular analysis of untypable samples. Virus Research 38, 137–157.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Swofford, D. (1998). PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and other methods), version 4.0d64. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
  41. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673-4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tokita, H., Okamoto, H., Luengrojanakul, P., Vareesangthip, K., Chainuvati, T., Iizuka, H., Tsuda, F., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis C virus variants from Thailand classifiable into five novel genotypes in the sixth (6b), seventh (7c, 7d) and ninth (9b, 9c) major genetic groups. Journal of General Virology 76, 2329-2335.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tokita, H., Okamoto, H., Iizuka, H., Kishimoto, J., Tsuda, F., Lesmana, L. A., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1996; ). Hepatitis C virus variants from Jakarta, Indonesia classifiable into novel genotypes in the second (2e and 2f), tenth (10a) and eleventh (11a) genetic groups. Journal of General Virology 77, 293-301.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tokita, H., Okamoto, H., Iizuka, H., Kishimoto, J., Tsuda, F., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1998; ). The entire nucleotide sequences of three hepatitis C virus isolates in genetic groups 7–9 and comparison with those in the other eight genetic groups. Journal of General Virology 79, 1847-1857.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. van Doorn, L. J., Kleter, G. E. M., Stuyver, L., Maertens, G., Brouwer, J. T., Schalm, S. W., Heijtink, R. A. & Quint, W. G. V. ( 1995; ). Sequence analysis of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 to 5 reveals multiple novel subtypes in the Benelux countries. Journal of General Virology 76, 1871-1876.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Xu, L.-Z., Larzul, D., Delaporte, E., Brechot, C. & Kremsdorf, D. ( 1994; ). Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 is highly prevalent in central Africa (Gabon). Journal of General Virology 75, 2393-2398.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zein, N. N. ( 2000; ). Clinical significance of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13, 223-235.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1001
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-5-1001
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error