1887

Abstract

Agnoproteins, encoded by the 5′-region of the late bicistronic mRNA of some polyomaviruses, are small proteins with largely unknown functions. In avian polyomavirus (APV)-infected cells, mRNAs of seven putative agnoproteins have been observed. Recently, it has been shown that agnoprotein 1a and its truncated variant agnoprotein 1b, encoded by the predominant mRNA species, are essential for APV replication. Here, the presence of agnoprotein 1a is demonstrated in the nucleus of APV-infected cells and in purified APV particles. Interaction between agnoprotein 1a and the major structural protein, VP1, was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments using lysates of recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. With proteins expressed in , binding to double-stranded DNA in a sequence-unspecific manner was shown for agnoprotein 1a, whereas agnoprotein 1b failed to bind. A leucine zipper-like motif present in agnoprotein 1a is considered to be involved in DNA binding. Due to the absence of any structural or functional homologies between APV agnoprotein 1a and the agnoproteins of mammalian polyomaviruses, it is suggested that this protein should be renamed VP4, indicating its function as a fourth structural protein of APV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-4-909
2001-04-01
2020-04-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/4/0820909a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-4-909&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alwine J. C.. 1982; Evidence for simian virus 40 late transcriptional control: mixed infections of wild-type simian virus 40 and a late leader deletion mutant exhibit trans effects on late viral RNA synthesis. Journal of Virology42:798–803
    [Google Scholar]
  2. An K., Smiley S. A., Gillock E. T., Reeves W. M., Consigli R. A.. 1999; Avian polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 interacts with the minor capsid proteins and is transported into the cell nucleus but does not assemble into capsid-like particles when expressed in the baculovirus system. Virus Research64:173–185
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Buratowski S., Chodosh L. A.. 1996; Mobility shift DNA-binding assay using gel electrophoresis. In Current Protocols in Molecular Biology , unit 12.2 Edited by Ausubel F. M., Frederick M. New York: John Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carswell S., Alwine J. C.. 1986; Simian virus 40 agnoprotein facilitates perinuclear–nuclear localization of VP1, the major capsid protein. Journal of Virology60:1055–1061
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dhar R., Subramanian K. N., Pan J., Weissman S. M.. 1977; Structure of a large segment of the genome of simian virus 40 that does not encode known proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA74:827–831
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dykstra M. J., Bozeman L. H.. 1982; A light and electron microscopic examination of budgerigar fledgling disease virus in tissue and cell culture. Avian Pathology11:11–28
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hay N., Aloni Y.. 1985; Attenuation of late simian virus 40 mRNA synthesis is enhanced by the agnoprotein and is temporally regulated in isolated nuclear systems. Molecular and Cellular Biology5:1327–1334
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hou-Jong M. H., Larsen S. H., Roman A.. 1987; Role of the agnoprotein in regulation of simian virus 40 replication and maturation pathways. Journal of Virology61:937–939
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jackson V., Chalkley R.. 1981; Use of whole-cell fixation to visualize replicating and maturing simian virus 40: identification of new viral gene product. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA78:6081–6085
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jay G., Nomura S., Anderson C. W., Khoury G.. 1981; Identification of the SV40 agnogene product: a DNA binding protein. Nature291:346–349
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Johne R., Müller H.. 1998; Avian polyomavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from Falconiformes and Psittaciformes . Archives of Virology143:1501–1512
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Johne R., Jungmann A., Müller H.. 2000; Agnoprotein 1a and agnoprotein 1b of avian polyomavirus are apoptotic inducers. Journal of General Virology81:1183–1190
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Krautwald M. E., Müller H., Kaleta E. F.. 1989; Polyomavirus infection in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ): clinical and aetiological studies. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin Reihe B36:459–467
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Landschulz W. H., Johnson P. F., McKnight S. L.. 1988; The leucine zipper: a hypothetical structure common to a new class of DNA binding proteins. Science240:1759–1764
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lehn H., Müller H.. 1986; Cloning and characterization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus. Virology151:362–370
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Liu Q., Hobom G.. 1999; Recombinant expression of late genes agno-2a and agno-2b of avian polyomavirus BFDV. Virus Genes19:183–187
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Liu Q., Hobom G.. 2000; Agnoprotein-1a of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus: identification of phosphorylation sites and functional importance in the virus life-cycle. Journal of General Virology81:359–367
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Liu Q., Hintz M., Li J., Linder M., Geyer R., Hobom G.. 2000; Recombinant expression and modification analysis of protein agno-1b encoded by avian polyomavirus BFDV. Archives of Virology145:1211–1223
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Luo D., Müller H., Tang X.-B., Hobom G.. 1994; Expression and DNA binding of budgerigar fledgling disease virus large T antigen. Journal of General Virology75:1267–1280
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Luo D., Müller H., Tang X.-B., Hobom G.. 1995; Early and late pre-mRNA processing of budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1: identification of viral RNA 5′ and 3′ ends and internal splice junctions. Journal of General Virology76:161–166
    [Google Scholar]
  21. MacArthur H., Walter G.. 1984; Monoclonal antibodies specific for the carboxy terminus of simian virus 40 large T antigen. Journal of Virology52:483–491
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Margolskee R. F., Nathans D.. 1983; Suppression of a VP1 mutant of simian virus 40 by missense mutations in serine codons of the viral agnogene. Journal of Virology48:405–409
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Marshall R.. 1989; Papova-like virus in a finch aviary. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Avian Veterinarians pp203–207 Meeting held in Seattle, WA, USA. Boca Raton, FL: Association of Avian Veterinarians;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Müller H., Nitschke R.. 1986; A polyoma-like virus associated with an acute disease of fledgling budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ). Medical Microbiology and Immunology175:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Nomura S., Khoury G., Jay G.. 1983; Subcellular localization of the simian virus 40 agnoprotein. Journal of Virology45:428–433
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pawlita M., Müller M., Oppenlander M., Zentgraf H., Herrmann M.. 1996; DNA encapsidation by viruslike particles assembled in insect cells from the major capsid protein VP1 of B-lymphotropic papovavirus. Journal of Virology70:7517–7526
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Phalen D. N., Wilson V. G., Gaskin J. M., Derr J. N., Graham D. L.. 1999; Genetic diversity in twenty variants of the avian polyomavirus. Avian Diseases43:207–218
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Resnick J., Shenk T.. 1986; Simian virus 40 agnoprotein facilitates normal nuclear location of the major capsid polypeptide and cell-to-cell spread of virus. Journal of Virology60:1098–1106
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rinaldo C. H., Traavik T., Hey A.. 1998; The agnogene of the human polyomavirus BK is expressed. Journal of Virology72:6233–6236
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ritchie B. W., Niagro F. D., Latimer K. S., Verhot J., Pesti D., Campagnoli R., Lukert P. D.. 1991; Polyomavirus infections in adult psittacine birds. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians5:202–206
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rott O., Kröger M., Müller H., Hobom G.. 1988; The genome of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus. Virology165:74–86
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T.. 1989; Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual , 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shenk T. E., Carbon J., Berg P.. 1976; Construction and analysis of viable deletion mutants of simian virus 40. Journal of Virology18:664–671
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Stoll R., Luo D., Kouwenhoven B., Hobom G., Müller H.. 1993; Molecular and biological characteristics of avian polyomaviruses: isolates from different species of birds indicate that avian polyomaviruses form a distinct subgenus within the polyomavirus genus. Journal of General Virology74:229–237
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-4-909
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-4-909
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error