1887

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been classified into three main groups and 11 distinct subtypes. Moreover, several circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) of HIV-1 have been recently documented to have spread widely causing extensive HIV-1 epidemics. A subtype, initially designated I (CRF04_cpx), was documented in Cyprus and Greece and was found to comprise regions of sequence derived from subtypes A and G as well as regions of unclassified sequence. Re-analysis of the three full-length CRF04_cpx sequences that were available revealed a mosaic genomic organization of unique complexity comprising regions of sequence from at least five distinct subtypes, A, G, H, K and unclassified regions. These strains account for approximately 2% of the total HIV-1-infected population in Greece, thus providing evidence of the great capability of HIV-1 to recombine and produce highly divergent strains which can be spread successfully through different infection routes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-575
2001-03-01
2020-01-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/3/0820575a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-575&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alizon, M., Wain-Hobson, S., Montagnier, L. & Sonigo, P. ( 1986; ). Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. Cell 46, 63-74.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bobkov, A., Kazennova, E., Selimova, L., Bobkova, M., Khanina, T., Ladnaya, N., Kravchenko, A., Pokrovsky, V., Cheingsong-Popov, R. & Weber, J. ( 1998; ). A sudden epidemic of HIV type 1 among injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union: identification of subtype A, subtype B, and novel gagA/envB recombinants. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 14, 669-676.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Carr, J. K., Salminen, M. O., Koch, C., Gotte, D., Artenstein, A. W., Hegerich, P. A., St Louis, D., Burke, D. S. & McCutchan, F. E. ( 1996; ). Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. Journal of Virology 70, 5935-5943.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carr, J. K., Salminen, M. O., Albert, J., Sanders-Buell, E., Gotte, D., Birx, D. L. & McCutchan, F. E. ( 1998; ). Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants. Virology 247, 22-31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carr, J. K., Laukannen, T., Salminen, M. O., Albert, J., Alaeus, B., Kim, B., Sanders-Buell, E., Birx, D. L. & McCutchan, F. E. ( 1999; ). Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing. AIDS 13, 1819-1826.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP: phylogeny inference package, version 3.5. University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  7. Gao, F., Robertson, D. L., Morrison, S. G., Hui, H., Craig, S., Decker, J., Fultz, P. N., Girard, M., Shaw, G. M., Hahn, B. H. & Sharp, P. M. ( 1996; ). The heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epidemic in Thailand is caused by an intersubtype (A/E) recombinant of African origin. Journal of Virology 70, 7013-7029.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gao, F., Robertson, D. L., Carruthers, C. D., Li, Y., Bailes, E., Kostrikis, L. G., Salminen, M. O., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Peeters, M., Ho, D. D., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M. & Hahn, B. H. ( 1998; ). An isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 represents a complex mosaic comprising three different group M subtypes (A, G, and I). Journal of Virology 72, 10234-10241.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Getchell, J. P., Hicks, D. R., Srinivasan, A., Heath, J. L., York, D. A., Malonga, M., Forthal, D. N., Mann, J. M. & McCornick, J. B. ( 1987; ). Human immunodeficiency virus isolated from a serum sample collected in 1976 in Central Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases 156, 833-837.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kimura, M. ( 1980; ). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequence. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111-120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kostrikis, L. G., Bagdades, E., Cao, Y., Zhang, L., Dimitriou, D. & Ho, D. D. ( 1995; ). Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains from patients in Cyprus: identification of a new subtype designated subtype I. Journal of Virology 69, 6122-6130.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Liitsola, K., Tashkinova, I., Laukkanen, T., Korovina, G., Smolskaja, T., Momot, O., Mashkilleyson, N., Chaplinskas, S., Brummer-Korvenkontio, H., Vanhatalo, J., Leinikki, P. & Salminen, M. O. ( 1998; ). HIV-1 genetic subtype A/B recombinant strain causing an explosive epidemic in injecting drug users in Kaliningrad. AIDS 12, 1907-1919.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Montavon, C., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Robertson, D., Koumare, B., Mulanga, C., Esu-Williams, E., Toure, C., Mboup, S., Saman, E., Delaporte, E. & Peeters, M. ( 1999; ). The identification of a complex A/G/I/J recombinant HIV type 1 virus in various West African countries. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 18, 1707-1712.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nasioulas, G., Paraskevis, D., Paparizos, V., Lazanas, M., Karafoulidou, A. & Hatzakis, A. ( 1998; ). Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Greece. Multicentre study on HIV-1 heterogeneity. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 14, 685-690.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nasioulas, G., Paraskevis, D., Magiorkinis, E., Theodoridou, M. & Hatzakis, A. ( 1999; ). Molecular analysis of the full-length genome of the HIV-1 ‘subtype I’: evidence of triple recombination. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 15, 745-758.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Paraskevis, D., Magiorkinis, E., Lazanas, M., Karafoulidou, A., Theodoridou, M., Kiosses, V. G., Gargalianos, P., Paparizos, V. & Hatzakis, A. (1999a). Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Greece. Seventh European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV Infection (Lisbon, Portugal, 23–27 October, 1999). Abstract 243.
  17. Paraskevis, D., Magiorkinis, E., Theodoridou, M., Mostrou, G., Papaevangelou, V., Kiosses, V. G., Hatzakis, A. & Matsaniotis, N. ( 1999b; ). Molecular epidemiology of vertical HIV-1 transmission in Greece. Journal of Human Virology 2, 339-343.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Robertson, D. L., Anderson, J. P., Bradac, J. A., Carr, J. K., Foley, B., Funkhouser, R. K., Gao, F., Hahn, B. H., Kalish, M. L., Kuiken, C., Learn, G. H., Leitner, T., McCutchan, F., Osmanov, S., Peeters, M., Pieniazek, D., Salminen, M., Sharp, P. M., Wolinsky, S. & Korber, B. ( 2000; ). HIV-1 nomenclature proposal. Science 288, 55-57.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Srinivasan, A., York, D., Butler, D. J., Jannoun-Nastr, R., Getchell, J., McCormick, J., Ou, C.-Y., Myers, G., Smith, T., Chen, E., Flaggs, G., Berman, P., Schochetman, G. & Kalyanaraman, S. ( 1989; ). Molecular characterization of HIV-1 isolated from serum collected in 1976: nucleotide sequence comparison of recent isolates and generation of hybrid HIV. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 5, 121-129.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-575
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-575
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error