1887

Abstract

The bICP0 protein encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is believed to activate transcription and consequently productive infection. Expression of full-length bICP0 protein is toxic in transiently transfected mouse neuroblastoma cells (neuro-2A) in the absence of other viral genes. However, bICP0 does not appear to directly induce apoptosis. Although bICP0 is believed to be functionally similar to the herpes simplex virus type 1-encoded ICP0, the only protein domain that is well conserved is a CHC zinc ring finger located near the N terminus of both proteins. Site-specific mutagenesis of the zinc ring finger of bICP0 demonstrated that it was important for inducing aggregated chromatin structures in transfected cells and toxicity. The zinc ring finger was also required for stimulating productive infection in bovine cells and for -activating the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter of herpes simplex virus type 1. Deletion of amino acids spanning 356–677 of bICP0 altered subcellular localization of bICP0 and prevented -activation of the TK promoter. However, this deletion did not prevent -activation of the viral genome. Taken together, these studies indicated that bICP0 has several functional domains, including the zinc ring finger, which stimulate productive infection and influence cell survival.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-483
2001-03-01
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/3/0820483a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-483&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ausubel, F., Brent, R., Kingston, R., Moore, D., Seidman, J., Smith, J. & Struhl, K. (1995). Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: John Wiley.
  2. Borden, K. L., Campbell Dwyer, E. J. & Salvato, M. S. ( 1998; ). An arenavirus RING (zinc-binding) protein binds the oncoprotein promyelocyte leukemia protein (PML) and relocates PML nuclear bodies to the cytoplasm. Journal of Virology 72, 758-766.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bratanich, A. C., Hanson, N. D. & Jones, C. J. ( 1992; ). The latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 inhibits the activity of immediate-early transcription unit 1. Virology 191, 988-991.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cai, W. & Schaffer, P. A. ( 1991; ). A cellular function can enhance gene expression and plating efficiency of a mutant defective in the gene for ICP0, a transactivating protein of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of Virology 65, 4078-4090.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ciacci-Zanella, J. R. & Jones, C. ( 1999; ). Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin contaminant of cereal grains, and inducer of apoptosis via the tumour necrosis factor pathway and caspase activation. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37, 703-712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ciacci-Zanella, J. R., Merrill, A. H.Jr, Wang, E. & Jones, C. ( 1998; ). Characterization of cell-cycle arrest by fumonisin B1 in CV-1 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology 36, 791-804.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ciacci-Zanella, J., Stone, M., Henderson, G. & Jones, C. ( 1999; ). The latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 inhibits programmed cell death. Journal of Virology 73, 9734-9740.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Delhon, G. & Jones, C. ( 1997; ). Identification of DNA sequences in the latency related promoter of bovine herpes virus type 1 which are bound by neuronal specific factors. Virus Research 51, 93-103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Devireddy, L. R. & Jones, C. J. ( 1999; ). Activation of caspases and p53 by bovine herpesvirus 1 infection results in programmed cell death and efficient virus release. Journal of Virology 73, 3778-3788.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Devireddy, L. R. & Jones, C. J. ( 2000; ). Olf-1, a neuron-specific transcription factor, can activate the herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell protein 0 promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 77-81.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Everett, R. D. ( 1987; ). A detailed mutational analysis of Vmw110, a trans-acting transcriptional activator encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1. EMBO Journal 6, 2069-2076.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Everett, R. D. ( 1988; ). Analysis of the functional domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early polypeptide Vmw110. Journal of Molecular Biology 202, 87-96.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Everett, R. D. ( 2000; ). ICP0, a regulator of herpes simplex virus during lytic and latent infection. Bioessays 22, 761-770.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Everett, R. D., Orr, A. & Elliott, M. ( 1991; ). High level expression and purification of herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate early polypeptide Vmw110. Nucleic Acids Research 19, 6155-6161.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Everett, R. D., Barlow, P., Milner, A., Luisi, B., Orr, A., Hope, G. & Lyon, D. ( 1993a; ). A novel arrangement of zinc-binding residues and secondary structure in the C3HC4 motif of an alpha herpes virus protein family. Journal of Molecular Biology 234, 1038-1047.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Everett, R. D., Cross, A. & Orr, A. ( 1993b; ). A truncated form of herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein Vmw110 is expressed in a cell type dependent manner. Virology 197, 751-756.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Everett, R., O’Hare, P., O’Rourke, D., Barlow, P. & Orr, A. ( 1995; ). Point mutations in the herpes simplex virus type 1 Vmw110 RING finger helix affect activation of gene expression, viral growth, and interaction with PML-containing nuclear structures. Journal of Virology 69, 7339-7344.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Everett, R. D., Meredith, M., Orr, A., Cross, A., Kathoria, M. & Parkinson, J. ( 1997; ). A novel ubiquitin-specific protease is dynamically associated with the PML nuclear domain and binds to a herpesvirus regulatory protein. EMBO Journal 16, 1519-1530.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Everett, R. D., Earnshaw, W. C., Findlay, J. & Lomonte, P. ( 1999a; ). Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. EMBO Journal 18, 1526-1538.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Everett, R. D., Lomonte, P., Sternsdorf, T., van Driel, R. & Orr, A. ( 1999b; ). Cell cycle regulation of PML modification and ND10 composition. Journal of Cell Science 112, 4581-4588.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Everett, R. D., Lomonte, P., Sternsdorf, T., van Driel, R. & Orr, A. ( 1999c; ). Cell cycle regulation of PML modification and ND10 composition. Journal of Cell Science 112, 4581-4588.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Freemont, P. S., Hanson, I. M. & Trowsdale, J. ( 1991; ). A novel cysteine-rich sequence motif [letter]. Cell 64, 483-484.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hegde, N. R., Lewin, H. A., Duggan, M. J., Stabel, J. R. & Srikumaran, S. ( 1998; ). Development of a syngeneic bovine fibroblast cell line: implications for the study of bovine cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Viral Immunology 11, 37-48.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hsu, H., Xiong, J. & Goeddel, D. V. ( 1995; ). The TNF receptor 1-associated protein TRADD signals cell death and NF- kappa B activation. Cell 81, 495-504.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jones, C. ( 1998; ). Alphaherpesvirus latency: its role in disease and survival of the virus in nature. Advances in Virus Research 51, 81-133.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Jordan, R. & Schaffer, P. A. ( 1997; ). Activation of gene expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 occurs at the level of mRNA synthesis. Journal of Virology 71, 6850-6862.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kawaguchi, Y., Bruni, R. & Roizman, B. ( 1997a; ). Interaction of herpes simplex virus 1 alpha regulatory protein ICP0 with elongation factor 1delta: ICP0 affects translational machinery. Journal of Virology 71, 1019-1024.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kawaguchi, Y., Van Sant, C. & Roizman, B. ( 1997b; ). Herpes simplex virus 1 alpha regulatory protein ICP0 interacts with and stabilizes the cell cycle regulator cyclin D3. Journal of Virology 71, 7328-7336.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Koppel, R., Fraefel, C., Vogt, B., Bello, L. J., Lawrence, W. C. & Schwyzer, M. ( 1996; ). Recombinant bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) lacking transactivator protein BICPO entails lack of glycoprotein C and severely reduced infectivity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 377, 787-795.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Koppel, R., Vogt, B. & Schwyzer, M. ( 1997; ). Immediate-early protein BICP22 of bovine herpesvirus 1 trans-represses viral promoters of different kinetic classes and is itself regulated by BICP0 at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Archives of Virology 142, 2447-2464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kretzner, L., Blackwood, E. M. & Eisenman, R. N. ( 1992; ). Transcriptional activities of the Myc and Max proteins in mammalian cells. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 182, 435-443.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lium, E. K. & Silverstein, S. ( 1997; ). Mutational analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 C3HC4 zinc ring finger reveals a requirement for ICP0 in the expression of the essential alpha27 gene. Journal of Virology 71, 8602-8614.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lium, E. K., Panagiotidis, C. A., Wen, X. & Silverstein, S. J. ( 1998; ). The NH2 terminus of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP0 contains a promoter-specific transcription activation domain. Journal of Virology 72, 7785-7795.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lomonte, P. & Everett, R. D. ( 1999; ). Herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein Vmw110 inhibits progression of cells through mitosis and from G1 into S phase of the cell cycle. Journal of Virology 73, 9456-9467.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lovering, R., Hanson, I. M., Borden, K. L., Martin, S., O’Reilly, N. J., Evan, G. I., Rahman, D., Pappin, D. J., Trowsdale, J. & Freemont, P. S. ( 1993; ). Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90, 2112-2116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Meredith, M., Orr, A. & Everett, R. ( 1994; ). Herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein Vmw110 binds strongly and specifically to a 135-kDa cellular protein. Virology 200, 457-469.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Meredith, M., Orr, A., Elliott, M. & Everett, R. ( 1995; ). Separation of sequence requirements for HSV-1 Vmw110 multimerization and interaction with a 135-kDa cellular protein. Virology 209, 174-187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Misra, V., Walker, S., Hayes, S. & O’Hare, P. ( 1995; ). The bovine herpesvirus alpha gene trans-inducing factor activates transcription by mechanisms different from those of its herpes simplex virus type 1 counterpart VP16. Journal of Virology 69, 5209-5216.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Misra, V., Walter, S., Yang, P., Hayes, S. & O’Hare, P. ( 1996; ). Conformational alteration of Oct-1 upon DNA binding dictates selectivity in differential interactions with related transcriptional coactivators. Molecular and Cellular Biology 16, 4404-4413.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Parkinson, J. & Everett, R. D. ( 2000; ). Alphaherpesvirus proteins related to herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 affect cellular structures and proteins. Journal of Virology 74, 10006-10017.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Perng, G.-C., Jones, C., Ciacci-Zanella, J., Stone, M., Henderson, G., Yukht, A., Slanina, S. M., Hoffman, F. M., Ghiasi, H., Nesburn, A. B. & Wechsler, S. ( 2000; ). Virus-induced neuronal apoptosis blocked by the herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript (LAT). Science 287, 1500-1503.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Schwyzer, M., Wirth, U. V., Vogt, B. & Fraefel, C. ( 1994; ). BICP22 of bovine herpesvirus 1 is encoded by a spliced 1·7 kb RNA which exhibits immediate early and late transcription kinetics. Journal of General Virology 75, 1703-1711.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Steinmann, N. A., Nunez, R., Koppel, R. & Ackermann, M. ( 1998; ). Construction and characterization of a stably transformed HeLa cell line in which the expression of bovine herpesvirus 1 ICP0 (BICP0) is induced by tetracycline. Archives of Virology 143, 35-48.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tikoo, S. K., Campos, M. & Babiuk, L. A. ( 1995; ). Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1): biology, pathogenesis, and control. Advances in Virus Research 45, 191-223.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. White, E. ( 1996; ). Life, death, and the pursuit of apoptosis. Genes & Development 10, 1–15.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Winkler, M. T., Doster, A. & Jones, C. ( 1999; ). Bovine herpesvirus 1 can infect CD4+ T lymphocytes and induce programmed cell death during acute infection of cattle. Journal of Virology 73, 8657-8668.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wirth, U. V., Gunkel, K., Engels, M. & Schwyzer, M. ( 1989; ). Spatial and temporal distribution of bovine herpesvirus 1 transcripts. Journal of Virology 63, 4882-4889.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wirth, U. V., Vogt, B. & Schwyzer, M. ( 1991; ). The three major immediate-early transcripts of bovine herpesvirus 1 arise from two divergent and spliced transcription units. Journal of Virology 65, 195-205.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wirth, U. V., Fraefel, C., Vogt, B., Vlcek, C., Paces, V. & Schwyzer, M. ( 1992; ). Immediate-early RNA 2.9 and early RNA 2.6 of bovine herpesvirus 1 are 3′ coterminal and encode a putative zinc finger transactivator protein. Journal of Virology 66, 2763-2772.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zhang, Y., Dickman, M. B. & Jones, C. ( 1999; ). The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 transcriptionally activates the p21 promoter through a cis-acting element containing two Sp1 binding sites. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 12367-12371.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Zhang, Y., Jones, C. & Dickman, M. (2000). Identification of genes that are activated after treatment of monkey kidney cells with the carcinogen fumonisin B1. Food and Chemical Toxicology (in press).
  52. Zhu, Z., Cai, W. & Schaffer, P. A. ( 1994; ). Cooperativity among herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early regulatory proteins: ICP4 and ICP27 affect the intracellular localization of ICP0. Journal of Virology 68, 3027-3040.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-483
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-3-483
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error