1887

Abstract

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an orthomyxovirus-like virus, is an important fish pathogen in marine aquaculture. Virus neutralization of 24 ISAV isolates in the TO cell line using rabbit antisera to the whole virus and comparative sequence analysis of their haemagglutinin (HA) genes have allowed elaboration on the variation of ISAV isolates. The 24 viruses were neutralized to varying degrees, revealing two major antigenic groups, one American and one European. Sequence analysis of the HA gene also revealed two groups of viruses (genotypes) that correlated with the antigenic groupings. The two HA subtypes had nucleotide sequence identity of only ⩽79·4% and amino acid sequence identity of ⩽84·5% whereas, within each subtype, the sequence identities were 90·7% or higher. This grouping was also evident upon phylogenetic analysis, which revealed two distinct phylogenetic families. Between the two groups, the amino acid sequence was most variable in the C-terminal region and included deletions of 4–16 amino acids in all isolates relative to ISAV isolate RPC/NB-980 280-2. In order to view the relationships among these sequences and the HA sequences of the established orthomyxoviruses, a second phylogenetic tree was constructed which showed the ISAV sequences to be more closely related to sequences from and than to sequences from and . The extensive deletions in the gene of European ISAV isolates lead us to speculate that the archetypal ISAV was probably of Canadian origin.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-12-2869
2001-12-01
2019-11-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/82/12/0822869a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-12-2869&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Blake, S., Bouchard, D., Keleher, W., Optiz, M. & Nicholson, B. L. ( 1999; ). Genomic relationships of the North American isolate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) to the Norwegian strain of ISAV. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 35, 139-144.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cox, N. J., Fuller, F., Kaverin, N., Klenk, H.-D., Lamb, R. A., Mahy, B. W. J., McCauley, J., Nakamura, K., Palese, P. & Webster, R. ( 2000; ). Family Orthomyxoviridae In Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses , pp. 585-597. Edited by M. H. V. van Regenmortel, C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle & R. B. Wickner. San Diego:Academic Press.
  3. Cunningham, C. O. & Snow, M. ( 2000; ). Genetic analysis of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from Scotland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 41, 1-8.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Falk, K., Namork, E., Rimstad, E., Mjaaland, S. & Dannevig, B. H. ( 1997; ). Characterization of infectious salmon anemia virus, an orthomyxo-like virus isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Virology 71, 9016-9023.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Feldmann, H., Kretzschmar, E., Klingeborn, B., Rott, R., Klenk, H. D. & Garten, W. ( 1988; ). The structure of serotype H10 hemagglutinin of influenza A virus: comparison of an apathogenic avian and a mammalian strain pathogenic for mink. Virology 165, 428-437.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Griffiths, S., Cook, M., Mallory, B. & Ritchie, R. ( 2001; ). Characterisation of ISAV proteins from cell culture. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 45, 19-24.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Inglis, J. A., Bruce, J. & Cunningham, C. O. ( 2000; ). Nucleotide sequence variation in isolates of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Scotland and Norway. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 43, 71-76.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kibenge, F. S. B., Dybing, J. K. & McKenna, P. K. ( 1991; ). Rapid procedure for large-scale isolation of plasmid DNA. Biotechniques 11, 65-67.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kibenge, F. S. B., Lyaku, J. R., Rainnie, D. & Hammell, K. L. ( 2000; ). Growth of infectious salmon anaemia virus in CHSE-214 cells and evidence for phenotypic differences between virus strains. Journal of General Virology 81, 143-150.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kibenge, F. S. B., Garate, O. N., Johnson, G., Arriagada, R., Kibenge, M. J. T. & Wadowska, D. ( 2001; ). Isolation and identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from Coho salmon in Chile. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 45, 9-18.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Klenk, H.-D. & Rott, R. ( 1988; ). The molecular biology of influenza virus pathogenicity. Advances in Virus Research 34, 247-281.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Krossøy, B., Hordvik, I., Nilsen, F., Nylund, A. & Endresen, C. ( 1999; ). The putative polymerase sequence of infectious salmon anemia virus suggests a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae. Journal of Virology 73, 2136-2142.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Krossøy, B., Devold, M., Sanders, L., Knappskog, P. M., Aspehaug, V., Falk, K., Nylund, A., Koumans, S., Endresen, C. & Biering, E. ( 2001a; ). Cloning and identification of the infectious salmon anaemia virus haemagglutinin. Journal of General Virology 82, 1757-1765.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Krossøy, B., Nilsen, F., Falk, K., Endresen, C. & Nylund, A. ( 2001b; ). Phylogenetic analysis of infectious salmon anaemia virus isolates from Norway, Canada and Scotland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 44, 1-6.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Matsuzaki, Y., Mizuta, K., Kimura, H., Sugawara, K., Tsuchiya, E., Suzuki, H., Hongo, S. & Nakamura, K. ( 2000; ). Characterization of antigenically unique influenza C virus strains isolated in Yamagata and Sendai Cities, Japan, during 1992–1993. Journal of General Virology 81, 1447-1452.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mjaaland, S., Rimstad, E., Falk, K. & Dannevig, B. H. ( 1997; ). Genomic characterization of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost. Journal of Virology 71, 7681-7686.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Palese, P. & Garcı́a-Sastre, A. ( 1999; ). Influenza viruses (Orthomyxoviridae): molecular biology In Encyclopedia of Virology , pp. 830-836. Edited by A. Granoff & R. G. Webster. San Diego:Academic Press.
  18. Pearson, W. R. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1988; ). Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 2444-2448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rimstad, E., Mjaaland, S., Snow, M., Mikalsen, A. B. & Cunningham, C. O. ( 2001; ). Characterization of the infectious salmon anemia virus genomic segment that encodes the putative hemagglutinin. Journal of Virology 75, 5352-5356.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ritchie, R. J., Cook, M., Melville, K., Simard, N., Cusack, R. & Griffiths, S. ( 2001; ). Identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus in Atlantic salmon from Nova Scotia (Canada): evidence for functional strain differences. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 44, 171-178.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4, 406-425.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  23. Schneider-Schaulies, J. ( 2000; ). Cellular receptors for viruses: links to tropism and pathogenesis. Journal of General Virology 81, 1413-1429.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Snow, M. & Cunningham, C. O. ( 2001; ). Characterisation of the putative nucleoprotein gene of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Virus Research 74, 111-118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Stothard, P. ( 2000; ). The sequence manipulation suite: JavaScript programs for analyzing and formatting protein and DNA sequences. Biotechniques 28, 1102-1104.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673-4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G. ( 1997; ). The CLUSTAL X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 25, 4876-4882.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Webster, R. G., Bean, W. J., Gorman, O. T., Chambers, T. M. & Kawaoka, Y. ( 1992; ). Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiological Reviews 56, 152-179.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Wergeland, H. I. & Jakobsen, R. A. ( 2001; ). A salmonid cell line (TO) for production of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 44, 183-190.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-12-2869
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-82-12-2869
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error