1887

Abstract

Mutants of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of human influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) encoding HA proteins that are proteolytically cleaved intracellularly, defective in binding to cellular receptors or defective for acylation within the cytoplasmic C terminus have been generated. Here, the properties of these mutated HA molecules are described and their incorporation into the lipid membrane of released human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-like particles is analysed. It is demonstrated that, when produced from cells coexpressing any of the binding-competent Aichi-HA molecules, release of HIV-like particles into the extracellular medium is reduced and the particles that are released fail to incorporate Aichi-HA. These blocks in release and incorporation, respectively, can both be overcome. The release of normal amounts of particles with incorporated HA can be achieved either by mutation of the receptor-binding site on the Aichi-HA molecule or by removal of sialic acid from surface proteins with neuraminidase. In contrast, as a result of blockage of the sialic acid-binding site by sialidated oligosaccharides on the HA itself, the HA of influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) is efficiently incorporated into HIV-like particles. These results, namely that particle release can be inhibited by interactions between the incorporated glycoprotein and the cell surface and/or that interactions with other cellular components can be inhibitory to incorporation into retrovirus envelopes, probably reflect general principles that may hold for many viral and cellular glycoproteins.

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2001-10-01
2020-05-28
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