1887

Abstract

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus-8) is aetiologically associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma and several other lymphoproliferative disorders. The latent nuclear antigen (LNA) encoded by KSHV ORF73 has important functions in virus latent infection and shows molecular polymorphism. Sequence variations were identified in the internal repeat domain (IRD) of ORF73. DNA sequencing of ORF73 from one KSHV-infected cell line, PK-1, revealed that there were 558 bp (30·2%) deletions and 66 (3·6%) point mutations located mainly in repeat region 2, the glutamine-rich region of ORF73 IRD, compared with ORF73 of BC-1 KSHV. Similar sequence variations of ORF73 were also identified in two other isolates. None of the sequence variations caused any translational frame-shift in these four KSHV isolates examined, suggesting that LNA has a conservative function in virus latent infection. The frequent sequence variations in repeat region 2 of ORF73 IRD were also identified by PCR–RFLP genotyping in 26 KSHV isolates, suggesting that this region is a ‘hot-spot’ for genetic variations. Each Kaposi’s sarcoma lesion sample contained one virus genotype with a unique RFLP pattern, indicating that KSHV infection was established with single predominate genotypes, which was further supported by the presence of invariable genotypes in multifocal lesions from individual KS patients. Four KSHV subtypes were classified based on the RFLP patterns that represent the patterns of DNA sequence variations in the ORF73 IRD. PCR–RFLP genotyping is capable of identifying LNA genetic variations and differentiating individual KSHV isolates, and thus may be useful for KSHV molecular epidemiology studies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2049
2000-08-01
2020-01-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/81/8/0812049a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2049&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alkan, S., Karcher, D. S., Ortiz, A., Khalil, S., Akhtar, M. & Ali, M. A. ( 1997; ). Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in organ transplant patients with immunosuppression. British Journal of Haematology 96, 412-414.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ansari, M. Q., Dawson, D. B., Nador, R., Rutherford, C., Schneider, N. R., Latimer, M. J., Picker, L., Knowles, D. M. & McKenna, R. W. ( 1996; ). Primary body cavity-based AIDS-related lymphomas. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 105, 221-229.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arvanitakis, L., Mesri, E. A., Nador, R. G., Said, J. W., Asch, A. S., Knowles, D. M. & Cesarman, E. ( 1996; ). Establishment and characterization of a primary effusion (body cavity-based) lymphoma cell line (BC-3) harboring Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) in the absence of Epstein–Barr virus. Blood 88, 2648-2654.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ballestas, M. E., Chatis, P. A. & Kaye, K. M. ( 1999; ). Efficient persistence of extrachromosomal KSHV DNA mediated by latency-associated nuclear antigen. Science 284, 641-644.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boshoff, C., Schulz, T. F., Kennedy, M. M., Graham, A. K., Fisher, C., Thomas, A., McGee, J. O., Weiss, R. A. & O’Leary, J. J. ( 1995; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects endothelial and spindle cells. Nature Medicine 1, 1274-1278.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Caterino-de-Araujo, A. ( 1998; ). Human herpesvirus 8 group B and C variants circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Infectious Diseases 177, 1136-1137.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cesarman, E., Chang, Y., Moore, P. S., Said, J. W. & Knowles, D. M. ( 1995a; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 1186-1191.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cesarman, E., Moore, P. S., Rao, P. H., Inghirami, G., Knowles, D. M. & Chang, Y. ( 1995b; ). In vitro establishment and characterization of two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma cell lines (BC-1 and BC-2) containing Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) DNA sequences. Blood 86, 2708-2714.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chang, Y., Cesarman, E., Pessin, M. S., Lee, F., Culpepper, J., Knowles, D. M. & Moore, P. S. ( 1994; ). Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266, 1865-1869.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chang, Y., Ziegler, J., Wabinga, H., Katangole-Mbidde, E., Boshoff, C., Schulz, T., Whitby, D., Maddalena, D., Jaffe, H. W., Weiss, R. A., Moore, P. S. & Uganda Kaposi’s Sarcoma Study Group. ( 1996; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Kaposi’s sarcoma in Africa. Archives of Internal Medicine 156, 202–204.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chauhan, D., Bharti, A., Raje, N., Gustafson, E., Pinkus, G. S., Pinkus, J. L., Teoh, G., Hideshima, T., Treon, S. P., Fingeroth, J. D. & Anderson, K. C. ( 1999; ). Detection of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. Blood 93, 1482-1486.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Choi, J. K., Lee, B. S., Shim, S. N., Li, M. & Jung, J. U. ( 2000; ). Identification of the novel K15 gene at the rightmost end of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome. Journal of Virology 74, 436-446.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cook, P. M., Whitby, D., Calabro, M. L., Luppi, M., Kakoola, D. N., Hjalgrim, H., Ariyoshi, K., Ensoli, B., Davison, A. J., Schulz, T. F. & Group, I. C. ( 1999; ). Variability and evolution of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in Europe and Africa. AIDS 13, 1165-1176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cotter, M. A.2nd & Robertson, E. S. ( 1999; ). The latency-associated nuclear antigen tethers the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome to host chromosomes in body cavity-based lymphoma cells. Virology 264, 254-264.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Diaz-Cano, S. J. & Wolfe, H. J. ( 1997; ). Clonality in Kaposi’s sarcoma. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 571.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dukers, N. H., Renwick, N., Prins, M., Geskus, R. B., Schulz, T. F., Weverling, G. J., Coutinho, R. A. & Goudsmit, J. ( 2000; ). Risk factors for human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and seroconversion in a cohort of homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology 151, 213-224.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dupin, N., Grandadam, M., Calvez, V., Gorin, I., Aubin, J. T., Harvard, S., Lamy, F., Leibowitch, M., Huraux, J. M., Escande, J. P. & Agut, H. ( 1995; ). Herpesvirus-like DNA in patients with Mediterranean Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345, 761-762.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dupin, N., Fisher, C., Kellam, P., Ariad, S., Tulliez, M., Franck, N., van Marck, E., Salmon, D., Gorin, I., Escande, J. P., Weiss, R. A., Alitalo, K. & Boshoff, C. ( 1999; ). Distribution of human herpesvirus-8 latently infected cells in Kaposi’s sarcoma, multicentric Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 4546-4551.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Foreman, K. E., Alkan, S., Krueger, A. E., Panella, J. R., Swinnen, L. J. & Nickoloff, B. J. ( 1998; ). Geographically distinct HHV-8 DNA sequences in Saudi Arabian iatrogenic Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions. American Journal of Pathology 153, 1001-1004.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Friborg, J.Jr, Kong, W., Hottiger, M. O. & Nabel, G. J. ( 1999; ). p53 inhibition by the LANA protein of KSHV protects against cell death. Nature 402, 889-894.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gao, S. J., Kingsley, L., Hoover, D. R., Spira, T. J., Rinaldo, C. R., Saah, A., Phair, J., Detels, R., Parry, P., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. S. ( 1996a; ). Seroconversion to antibodies against Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related latent nuclear antigens before the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 233-241.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gao, S. J., Kingsley, L., Li, M., Zheng, W., Parravicini, C., Ziegler, J., Newton, R., Rinaldo, C. R., Saah, A., Phair, J., Detels, R., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. S. ( 1996b; ). KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nature Medicine 2, 925-928.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gao, S. J., Zhang, Y. J., Deng, J. H., Rabkin, C. S., Flore, O. & Jenson, H. B. ( 1999; ). Molecular polymorphism of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen: evidence for a large repertoire of viral genotypes and dual infection with different viral genotypes. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180, 1466-1476.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gessain, A., Sudaka, A., Briere, J., Fouchard, N., Nicola, M. A., Rio, B., Arborio, M., Troussard, X., Audouin, J., Diebold, J. and others ( 1996; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes-like virus (human herpesvirus type 8) DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease: is there any relevant association in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients? Blood 87, 414–416.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gessain, A., Briere, J., Angelin-Duclos, C., Valensi, F., Beral, H. M., Davi, F., Nicola, M. A., Sudaka, A., Fouchard, N., Gabarre, J., Troussard, X., Dulmet, E., Audouin, J., Diebold, J. & de The, G. ( 1997; ). Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus) and malignant lymphoproliferations in France: a molecular study of 250 cases including two AIDS-associated body cavity-based lymphomas. Leukemia 11, 266-272.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Glenn, M., Rainbow, L., Aurad, F., Davison, A. & Schulz, T. F. ( 1999; ). Identification of a spliced gene from Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encoding a protein with similarities to latent membrane proteins 1 and 2A of Epstein–Barr virus. Journal of Virology 73, 6953-6963.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Grulich, A. E., Olsen, S. J., Luo, K., Hendry, O., Cunningham, P., Cooper, D. A., Gao, S. J., Chang, Y., Moore, P. S. & Kaldor, J. M. ( 1999; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: a sexually transmissible infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 20, 387-393.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kasolo, F. C., Monze, M., Obel, N., Anderson, R. A., French, C. & Gompels, U. A. ( 1998; ). Sequence analyses of human herpesvirus-8 strains from both African human immunodeficiency virus-negative and -positive childhood endemic Kaposi’s sarcoma show a close relationship with strains identified in febrile children and high variation in the K1 glycoprotein. Journal of General Virology 79, 3055-3065.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kedes, D. H., Operskalski, E., Busch, M., Kohn, R., Flood, J. & Ganem, D. ( 1996; ). The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk groups and evidence for sexual transmission. Nature Medicine 2, 918-924.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lee, M. A., Diamond, M. E. & Yates, J. L. ( 1999; ). Genetic evidence that EBNA-1 is needed for efficient, stable latent infection by Epstein–Barr virus. Journal of Virology 73, 2974-2982.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lennette, E. T., Blackbourn, D. J. & Levy, J. A. ( 1996; ). Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Lancet 348, 858-861.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Luppi, M., Barozzi, P., Marasca, R., Ferrari, M. G. & Torelli, G. ( 1997; ). Human herpesvirus 8 strain variability in clinical conditions other than Kaposi’s sarcoma. Journal of Virology 71, 8082-8083.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Martin, J. N., Ganem, D. E., Osmond, D. H., Page-Shafer, K. A., Macrae, D. & Kedes, D. H. ( 1998; ). Sexual transmission and the natural history of human herpesvirus 8 infection. New England Journal of Medicine 338, 948-954.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mayama, S., Cuevas, L. E., Sheldon, J., Omar, O. H., Smith, D. H., Okong, P., Silvel, B., Hart, C. A. & Schulz, T. F. ( 1998; ). Prevalence and transmission of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in Ugandan children and adolescents. International Journal of Cancer 77, 817-820.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Melbye, M., Cook, P. M., Hjalgrim, H., Begtrup, K., Simpson, G. R., Biggar, R. J., Ebbesen, P. & Schulz, T. F. ( 1998; ). Risk factors for Kaposi’s-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) seropositivity in a cohort of homosexual men, 1981–1996. International Journal of Cancer 77, 543-548.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Memar, O. M., Rady, P. L. & Tyring, S. K. ( 1995; ). Human herpesvirus-8: detection of novel herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma and other lesions. Journal of Molecular Medicine 73, 603-609.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Meng, Y. X., Spira, T. J., Bhat, G. J., Birch, C. J., Druce, J. D., Edlin, B. R., Edwards, R., Gunthel, C., Newton, R., Stamey, F. R., Wood, C. & Pellett, P. E. ( 1999; ). Individuals from North America, Australia, and Africa are infected with four different genotypes of human herpesvirus 8. Virology 261, 106-119.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Miller, G., Rigsby, M. O., Heston, L., Grogan, E., Sun, R., Metroka, C., Levy, J. A., Gao, S. J., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. ( 1996; ). Antibodies to butyrate-inducible antigens of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in patients with HIV-1 infection. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 1292-1297.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Moore, P. S. & Chang, Y. ( 1995; ). Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions from persons with and without HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 1181-1185.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Nador, R. G., Cesarman, E., Chadburn, A., Dawson, D. B., Ansari, M. Q., Sald, J. & Knowles, D. M. ( 1996; ). Primary effusion lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity associated with the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Blood 88, 645-656.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Nocera, A., Corbellino, M., Valente, U., Barocci, S., Torre, F., De Palma, R., Sementa, A., Traverso, G. B., Icardi, A., Fontana, I., Arcuri, V., Poli, F., Cagetti, P., Moore, P. & Parravicini, C. ( 1998; ). Posttransplant human herpes virus 8 infection and seroconversion in a Kaposi’s sarcoma affected kidney recipient transplanted from a human herpes virus 8 positive living related donor. Transplantation Proceedings 30, 2095-2096.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Olsen, S. J., Chang, Y., Moore, P. S., Biggar, R. J. & Melbye, M. ( 1998; ). Increasing Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence with age in a highly Kaposi’s sarcoma endemic region, Zambia in 1985. AIDS 12, 1921-1925.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Otsuki, T., Kumar, S., Ensoli, B., Kingma, D. W., Yano, T., Stetler-Stevenson, M., Jaffe, E. S. & Raffeld, M. ( 1996; ). Detection of HHV-8/KSHV DNA sequences in AIDS-associated extranodal lymphoid malignancies. Leukemia 10, 1358-1362.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Parravicini, C., Olsen, S. J., Capra, M., Poli, F., Sirchia, G., Gao, S. J., Berti, E., Nocera, A., Rossi, E., Bestetti, G., Pizzuto, M., Galli, M., Moroni, M., Moore, P. S. & Corbellino, M. ( 1997; ). Risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission from donor allografts among Italian posttransplant Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Blood 90, 2826-2829.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Poole, L. J., Zong, J. C., Ciufo, D. M., Alcendor, D. J., Cannon, J. S., Ambinder, R., Orenstein, J. M., Reitz, M. S. & Hayward, G. S. ( 1999; ). Comparison of genetic variability at multiple loci across the genomes of the major subtypes of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reveals evidence for recombination and for two distinct types of open reading frame K15 alleles at the right-hand end. Journal of Virology 73, 6646-6660.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rainbow, L., Platt, G. M., Simpson, G. R., Sarid, R., Gao, S. J., Stoiber, H., Herrington, C. S., Moore, P. S. & Schulz, T. F. ( 1997; ). The 222- to 234-kilodalton latent nuclear protein (LNA) of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) is encoded by orf73 and is a component of the latency-associated nuclear antigen. Journal of Virology 71, 5915-5921.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Raje, N., Gong, J., Chauhan, D., Teoh, G., Avigan, D., Wu, Z., Chen, D., Treon, S. P., Webb, I. J., Kufe, D. W. & Anderson, K. C. ( 1999; ). Bone marrow and peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with multiple myeloma are phenotypically and functionally normal despite the detection of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus gene sequences. Blood 93, 1487-1495.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Regamey, N., Tamm, M., Wernli, M., Witschi, A., Thiel, G., Cathomas, G. & Erb, P. ( 1998; ). Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection from renal-transplant donors to recipients. New England Journal of Medicine 339, 1358-1363.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Regamey, N., Tamm, M., Binet, I., Thiel, G., Erb, P. & Cathomas, G. ( 1999; ). Transplantation-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma: herpesvirus 8 transmission through renal allografts. Transplantation Proceedings 31, 922-923.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Renne, R., Zhong, W., Herndier, B., McGrath, M., Abbey, N., Kedes, D. & Ganem, D. ( 1996; ). Lytic growth of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in culture. Nature Medicine 2, 342-346.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Rettig, M. B., Ma, H. J., Vescio, R. A., Pold, M., Schiller, G., Belson, D., Savage, A., Nishikubo, C., Wu, C., Fraser, J., Said, J. W. & Berenson, J. R. ( 1997; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of bone marrow dendritic cells from multiple myeloma patients. Science 276, 1851-1854.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rezza, G., Lennette, E. T., Giuliani, M., Pezzotti, P., Caprilli, F., Monini, P., Butto, S., Lodi, G., Di Carlo, A., Levy, J. A. & Ensoli, B. ( 1998; ). Prevalence and determinants of anti-lytic and anti-latent antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 among Italian individuals at risk of sexually and parenterally transmitted infections. International Journal of Cancer 77, 361-365.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Russo, J. J., Bohenzky, R. A., Chien, M. C., Chen, J., Yan, M., Maddalena, D., Parry, J. P., Peruzzi, D., Edelman, I. S., Chang, Y. & Moore, P. S. ( 1996; ). Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 14862-14867.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Said, J. W., Rettig, M. R., Heppner, K., Vescio, R. A., Schiller, G., Ma, H. J., Belson, D., Savage, A., Shintaku, I. P., Koeffler, H. P., Asou, H., Pinkus, G., Pinkus, J., Schrage, M., Green, E. & Berenson, J. R. ( 1997; ). Localization of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in bone marrow biopsy samples from patients with multiple myeloma. Blood 90, 4278-4282.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Schalling, M., Ekman, M., Kaaya, E. E., Linde, A. & Biberfeld, P. ( 1995; ). A role for a new herpesvirus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nature Medicine 1, 707-708.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Simpson, G. R., Schulz, T. F., Whitby, D., Cook, P. M., Boshoff, C., Rainbow, L., Howard, M. R., Gao, S. J., Bohenzky, R. A., Simmonds, P., Lee, C., de Ruiter, A., Hatzakis, A., Tedder, R. S., Weller, I. V., Weiss, R. A. & Moore, P. S. ( 1996; ). Prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection measured by antibodies to recombinant capsid protein and latent immunofluorescence antigen. Lancet 348, 1133-1138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Smith, N. A., Sabin, C. A., Gopal, R., Bourboulia, D., Labbet, W., Boshoff, C., Barlow, D., Band, B., Peters, B. S., de Ruiter, A., Brown, D. W., Weiss, R. A., Best, J. M. & Whitby, D. ( 1999; ). Serologic evidence of human herpesvirus 8 transmission by homosexual but not heterosexual sex. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180, 600-606.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Soulier, J., Grollet, L., Oksenhendler, E., Cacoub, P., Cazals-Hatem, D., Babinet, P., d’Agay, M. F., Clauvel, J. P., Raphael, M., Degos, L. and others ( 1995; ). Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease. Blood 86, 1276–1280.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Su, I.-J., Hsu, Y.-S., Chang, Y.-C. & Wang, I.-W. ( 1995; ). Herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in Kaposi’s sarcoma from AIDS and non-AIDS patients in Taiwan. Lancet 345, 722-723.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Szekely, L., Kiss, C., Mattsson, K., Kashuba, E., Pokrovskaja, K., Juhasz, A., Holmvall, P. & Klein, G. ( 1999; ). Human herpesvirus-8-encoded LNA-1 accumulates in heterochromatin-associated nuclear bodies. Journal of General Virology 80, 2889-2900.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Whitby, D., Howard, M. R., Tenant-Flowers, M., Brink, N. S., Copas, A., Boshoff, C., Hatzioannou, T., Suggett, F. E., Aldam, D. M., Denton, A. S. and others ( 1995; ). Detection of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals and progression to Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 346, 799–802.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Zhong, W., Wang, H., Herndier, B. & Ganem, D. ( 1996; ). Restricted expression of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genes in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 6641-6646.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Zong, J. C., Metroka, C., Reitz, M. S., Nicholas, J. & Hayward, G. S. ( 1997; ). Strain variability among Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genomes: evidence that a large cohort of United States AIDS patients may have been infected by a single common isolate. Journal of Virology 71, 2505-2511.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Zong, J. C., Ciufo, D. M., Alcendor, D. J., Wan, X., Nicholas, J., Browning, P. J., Rady, P. L., Tyring, S. K., Orenstein, J. M., Rabkin, C. S., Su, I. J., Powell, K. F., Croxson, M., Foreman, K. E., Nickoloff, B. J., Alkan, S. & Hayward, G. S. ( 1999; ). High-level variability in the ORF-K1 membrane protein gene at the left end of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome defines four major virus subtypes and multiple variants or clades in different human populations. Journal of Virology 73, 4156-4170.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2049
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-8-2049
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error