Two serotypes, I and II, have been identified for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family . Here, the generation by reverse genetics of IBDV chimeras in segment A of the bisegmented genome is reported. The 5- and 3′-noncoding regions (NCRs) of a serotype II strain were exchanged with the NCRs of a full-length cDNA clone of segment A of a serotype I strain. Isolated chimeric viruses were characterized in cell culture and susceptible chickens. The results show that IBDV chimeras in segment A were able to replicate in cell culture and that VP1 encoded by a serotype I segment B is functionally active with serotype I NCRs as well as with serotype II NCRs. Chimeric viruses infected susceptible chickens and caused mild depletion of bursal cells. Thus, the noncoding regions of segment A are not responsible for the different pathotypes of IBDV serotypes I and II.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bayliss, C. D., Spies, U., Shaw, K., Peters, R. W., Papageorgiou, A., Müller, H. & Boursnell, M. E. G. (1990). A comparison of the sequences of segment A of four infectious bursal disease virus strains and identification of a variable region in VP2. Journal of General Virology 71, 1303-1312.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Chen, M. H. & Frey, T. K. J. (1999). Mutagenic analysis of the 3′ cis-acting elements of the rubella virus genome.Journal of Virology 73, 3386-3403. [Google Scholar]
  3. Cosgrove, A. S. (1962). An apparently new disease of chickens – avian nephrosis.Avian Diseases 6, 385-389.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Dobos, P., Berthiaume, L., Leong, J. A., Kibenge, F. S. B., Müller, H. & Nicholson, B. L. (1995). Family Birnaviridae. In Virus Taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 240-244. Edited by F. A. Murphy, C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, S. A. Ghabrial, A. W. Jarvis, G. P. Martelli, M. A. Mayo & M. D. Summers. Vienna & New York:Springer-Verlag.
  5. Fadly, A. M. & Nazerian, K. (1983). Pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease in chickens infected with virus at various ages. Avian Diseases 27, 714-723.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hassan, M. K., Nielsen, C. K., Ward, L. A., Jackwood, D. J. & Saif, Y. M. (1996). Antigenicity, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of small and large plaque infectious bursal disease virus clones.Avian Diseases 40, 832-836.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Hudson, P. J., McKern, N. M., Power, B. E. & Azad, A. A. (1986). Genomic structure of the large RNA segment of infectious bursal disease virus.Nucleic Acids Research 14, 5001-5012.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Ismail, N. M., Saif, Y. M. & Moorhead, P. D. (1988). Lack of pathogenicity of five serotype 2 infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens.Avian Diseases 32, 757-759.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Jackwood, D. J., Saif, Y. M. & Moorhead, P. D. (1985). Immunogenicity and antigenicity of infectious bursal disease virus serotypes I and II in chickens.Avian Diseases 29, 1184-1194.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Kawamura, N., Kohara, M., Abe, S., Komatsu, T., Tago, K., Arita, M. & Nomoto, A. (1989). Determinants in the 5′ noncoding region of poliovirus Sabin 1 RNA that influence the attenuation phenotype.Journal of Virology 63, 1302-1309. [Google Scholar]
  11. Lütticken, D. & Cornelissen, D. R. W. (1981). Plaquereduktionstest und Mikroneutralisationstest zum Nachweis neutralisierender Antikörper gegen das Virus der infectiösen Bursitis (IBDV). Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 88, 506-508. [Google Scholar]
  12. McFerran, J. B., McNulty, M. S., Killop, E. R., Connor, T. J., McCracken, R. M., Collins, P. S. & Allan, G. M. (1980). Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks: demonstration of a second serotype.Avian Pathology 9, 395-404.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Martinez-Salas, E., Saiz, J.-C., Davila, M., Belsham, G. J. & Domingo, E. (1993). A single nucleotide substitution in the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus leads to enhanced cap-independent translation in vivo.Journal of Virology 67, 3748-3755. [Google Scholar]
  14. Mazariegos, L. A., Lukert, P. D. & Brown, J. (1990). Pathogenicity and immunosuppressive properties of infectious bursal disease ‘intermediate’ strains.Avian Diseases 34, 203-208.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Müller, H., Lange, H. & Becht, H. (1986). Formation, characterization and interfering capacity of a small plaque mutant and of incomplete virus particles of infectious bursal disease virus.Virus Research 4, 297-309.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Mundt, E. & Müller, H. (1995). Complete nucleotide sequences of 5′- and 3′-noncoding regions of both genome segments of different strains of infectious bursal disease virus.Virology 209, 10-18.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Mundt, E. & Vakharia, V. N. (1996). Synthetic transcripts of double-stranded Birnavirus genome are infectious.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 11131-11136.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Mundt, E., Beyer, J. & Müller, H. (1995). Identification of a novel viral protein in infectious bursal disease virus-infected cells.Journal of General Virology 76, 437-443.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Mundt, E., Köllner, B. & Kretzschmar, D. (1997). VP5 of infectious bursal disease virus is not essential for viral replication in cell culture. Journal of Virology 71, 5647-5651. [Google Scholar]
  20. Muster, T., Subbarao, E. K., Enami, M., Murphy, B. R. & Palese, P. (1991). An influenza A virus containing influenza B virus 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions on the neuraminidase gene is attenuated in mice.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 88, 5177-5181.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Nieper, H. & Müller, H. (1996). Susceptibility of chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus does not correlate with the presence of specific binding sites. Journal of General Virology 77, 1229-1237.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Schobries, H. D., Wilke, I. & Schmidt, U. (1977). Infektiöse Bursitis (Gumboro disease) in einem Broilerbestand. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin 32, 700-704. [Google Scholar]
  23. Skeeles, J. K., Lukert, P. D., Fletcher, O. J. & Leonard, J. D. (1979). Immunization studies with cell-culture-adapted infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 23, 456-465.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Spies, U., Müller, H. & Becht, H. (1987). Properties of RNA polymerase activity associated with infectious bursal disease virus and characterization of its reaction products.Virus Research 8, 127-140.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Spies, U., Müller, H. & Becht, H. (1989). Nucleotide sequence of infectious bursal disease virus segment A delineates two major open reading frames.Nucleic Acids Research 17, 7982.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Tsai, H. J. & Saif, Y. M. (1992). Effect of cell-culture passage on the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of two variant strains of infectious bursal disease virus.Avian Diseases 36, 415-422.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Turner, R. L. & Buck, K. W. (1999). Mutational analysis of cis-acting sequences in the 3′- and 5′-untranslated regions of RNA2 of red clover necrotic mosaic virus.Virology 253, 115-124.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Winterfield, R. W., Fadly, A. M. & Bickford, A. (1972). Infectivity and distribution of infectious bursal disease virus in the chicken. Persistence of the virus and lesions.Avian Diseases 16, 622-632.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Yamaguchi, T., Kondo, T., Inoshima, Y., Ogawa, M., Miyoshi, M., Yanai, T., Masegi, T., Fukushi, H. & Hirai, K. (1996). In vitro attenuation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus: some characteristics of attenuated strains.Avian Diseases 40, 501-509.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Yao, K. & Vakharia, V. N. (1998). Generation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from cloned cDNA.Journal of Virology 72, 8913-8920. [Google Scholar]
  31. Yao, K., Goodwin, M. A. & Vakharia, V. N. (1998). Generation of a mutant infectious bursal disease virus that does not cause bursal lesions.Journal of Virology 72, 2647-2654. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error