1887

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 gene sequences were generated by RT–PCR from 55 field isolates collected in Illinois and eastern Iowa. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the virus were examined on a local geographical scale in order to test the hypothesis that the genetic similarity of PRRSV isolates (measured as their percentage pairwise ORF5 nucleotide similarity) was positively correlated with their geographical proximity. Levels of genetic variability in the Illinois/eastern Iowa PRRSV sample were similar to levels of variability seen across broader geographical regions within North America. The genetic similarity of isolates did not correlate with their geographical distance. These results imply that the movement of PRRSV onto farms does not generally occur via distance-limited processes such as wind or wildlife vectors, but more typically occurs via the long-distance transport of animals or semen. Genetic distances between PRRSV isolates collected from the same farms at different times increased as the time separating the collection events increased. This result implies rapid movement of new genetic types of PRRSV into and out of farms. PRRSV ORF5 displayed a pattern of third-codon-position diversity bias that was not evident in a geographically comparable sample of pseudorabies virus (a swine alphaherpesvirus) gC gene sequences. This result provides evidence that PRRSV ORF5 is experiencing stabilizing selection against structural novelty. Despite high genetic variability at all geographical levels, PRRSV ORF5 nevertheless contained potentially antigenic regions that were invariant at the amino acid level. These regions should make effective vaccine targets if they prove to be immunogenic.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-1-171
2000-01-01
2020-01-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/81/1/0810171a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-1-171&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Albina, E. ( 1997; ). Epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an overview. Veterinary Microbiology 55, 309-316.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ben-Porat, T., DeMarchi, J. M., Lomniczi, B. & Kaplan, A. S. ( 1986; ). Role of glycoproteins of pseudorabies virus in eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Virology 154, 325-334.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bertorelle, G. & Barbujani, G. ( 1995; ). Analysis of DNA diversity by spatial autocorrelation. Genetics 140, 811-819.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Christopher-Hennings, J., Nelson, E. A., Hines, R. J., Nelson, J. K., Swenson, S. L., Zimmerman, J. J., Chase, C. L., Yaeger, M. J. & Benfield, D. A. ( 1995; ). Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in serum and semen of adult boars. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 7, 456-464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Collins, J. (1998). Interpreting PRRSV sequencing data. In Proceedings of the Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, pp. 1–4. University of Minnesota, USA.
  6. Conzelmann, K.-K., Visser, N., Van Woensel, P. & Thiel, H.-J. ( 1993; ). Molecular characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, a member of the arterivirus group. Virology 193, 329-339.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. De Jong, M. F., Cromwijk, W. & Van’t Veld, P. (1991). The new pig disease: epidemiology and production losses in the Netherlands. In Report of a Seminar on the New Pig Disease (PRRS), pp. 9–19. Brussels, Belgium.
  8. de Vries, A. A. F., Horzinek, M. C., Rottier, P. J. M. & de Groot, R. J. ( 1997; ). The genome organization of the Nidovirales: similarities and differences between arteri-, toro-, and coronaviruses. Seminars in Virology 8, 33-47.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Done, S. H., Paton, D. J. & White, M. E. C. ( 1996; ). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): a review, with emphasis on pathological, virological and diagnostic aspects. British Veterinary Journal 152, 153-174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Drew, T. W., Meulenberg, J. J. M., Sands, J. J. & Paton, D. J. ( 1995; ). Production, characterization and reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of General Virology 76, 1361-1369.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783-791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Felsenstein, J. (1990). PHYLIP: phylogeny inference package, version 3.5c. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
  13. Holland, J., Spindler, K., Horodyski, F., Grabau, E., Nichol, S. & VandePol, S. ( 1982; ). Rapid evolution of RNA genomes. Science 215, 1577-1585.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hope, A. C. A. ( 1968; ). A simplified Monte Carlo significance test procedure. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 30, 582-598.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hopp, T. P. & Woods, K. R. ( 1981; ). Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 78, 3824-3828.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kapur, V., Elam, M. R., Pawlovich, T. M. & Murtaugh, M. P. ( 1996; ). Genetic variation in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in the midwestern United States. Journal of General Virology 77, 1271-1276.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kim, H. S., Kwang, J., Yoon, I. J., Joo, H. S. & Frey, M. L. ( 1993; ). Enhanced replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a homogeneous subpopulation of MA-104 cell line. Archives of Virology 133, 477-483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Komjin, R. E., Van Klink, E. G. M. & Van Der Sande, W. J. H. (1991). The possible effect of weather conditions on the spread of the ‘new’ pig disease in the Netherlands. In Report of a Seminar on the New Pig Disease (PRRS), pp. 28–31. Brussels, Belgium.
  19. Legendre, P. & Vaudour, A. (1991). The R Package: Multidimensional Analysis, Spatial Analysis. Montréal: Université de Montréal Département de sciences biologiques.
  20. Le Poitier, M. F., Blanquefort, P., Morvan, E. & Albina, E. (1995). Results of a control program for PRRS in the French area ‘Pays de Loire.’ In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on PRRS, p. 34. Copenhagen, Denmark.
  21. Li, W.-H. & Graur, D. (1991). Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  22. Maddison, W. P. & Maddison, D. R. (1992). MacClade: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  23. Mantel, N. ( 1967; ). The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Research 27, 209-220.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mardassi, H., Mounir, S. & Dea, S. ( 1994; ). Identification of major differences in the nucleocapsid protein genes of a Québec strain and European strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of General Virology 75, 681-685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Meng, X.-J., Paul, P. S., Halbur, P. G. & Morozov, I. ( 1995; ). Sequence comparison of open reading frames 2 to 5 of low and high virulence United States isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of General Virology 76, 3181-3188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Meulenberg, J. J. M., Hulst, M. M., de Meijer, E. J., Moonen, P. L. J., den Besten, A., de Kluyver, E. P., Wensvoort, G. & Moormann, R. J. M. ( 1993; ). Lelystad virus, the causative agent of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (PEARS), is related to LDV and EAV. Virology 192, 62-72.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Murtaugh, M. P., Elam, M. R. & Kakach, L. T. ( 1995; ). Comparison of the structural protein coding sequences of the VR-2332 and Lelystad virus strains of the PRRS virus. Archives of Virology 140, 1451-1460.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Murtaugh, M. P., Faaberg, K. S., Laber, J., Elam, M. & Kapur, V. ( 1998; ). Genetic variation in the PRRS virus. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 440, 787-794.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nei, M. (1987). Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press.
  30. Nelsen, C. J., Murtaugh, M. P. & Faaberg, K. S. ( 1999; ). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus comparison: divergent evolution on two continents. Journal of Virology 73, 270-280.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Plagemann, P. G. W. & Moennig, V. ( 1992; ). Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus: a new group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Advances in Virus Research 41, 99-192.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4, 406-425.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Scherba, G., Wiemers, J. F., Siegel, A. M., Jin, L., Austin, C. C., Bowman, L., Redeford, B., Johnston, N. A. & Weigel, R. M. ( 1999; ). Application of a quantitative algorithm to restriction endonuclease analysis of Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) virus from a geographically localized outbreak. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 11, 423-431.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Smouse, P. E., Long, J. C. & Sokal, R. R. ( 1986; ). Multiple regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel test of matrix correspondence. Systematic Zoology 35, 627-632.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Swenson, S. L., Hill, H. T., Zimmerman, J. J., Evans, L. E., Landgraf, J. G., Wills, R. W., Sanderson, T. P., McGinley, J. M., Brevik, A. K., Ciszewski, D. K. & Frey, M. L. ( 1994; ). Excretion of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in semen after experimentally induced infection in boars. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204, 1943-1948.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Swenson, S. L., Hill, H. T., Zimmerman, J. J., Evans, L. E., Wills, R. W., Yoon, K.-J., Schwartz, K. J., Althouse, G. C., McGinley, J. M. & Brevik, A. K. ( 1995; ). Preliminary assessment of an inactivated PRRS virus vaccine on the excretion of virus in semen. Swine Health and Production 3, 244-247.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Swofford, D. L. & Olsen, G. J. ( 1990; ). Phylogeny reconstruction. In Molecular Systematics, pp. 411-501. Edited by D. M. Hillis & C. Moritz. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  38. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673-4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Weigel, R., Firkins, L. & Scherba, G. (1998). Risk factors for infection of Illinois swine herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD), p. 44. Chicago, USA.
  40. Wensvoort, G., de Kluyver, E. P., Luijtze, E. A., den Besten, A., Harris, L., Collins, J. E., Christianson, W. T. & Chladek, D. ( 1992; ). Antigenic comparison of Lelystad virus and swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4, 134-138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wesley, R. D., Mengeling, W. L., Lager, K. M., Vorwald, A. C. & Roof, M. B. ( 1999; ). Evidence for divergence of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns following in vivo replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60, 463-467.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yeager, M. J., Prieve, T., Collins, J., Christopher-Hennings, J., Nelson, E. & Benfield, D. ( 1993; ). Evidence for the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in boar semen. Swine Health and Production 1(5), 7–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Yoon, K.-J., Wu, L.-L., Zimmerman, J. J. & Platt, K. B. ( 1997; ). Field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vary in their susceptibility to antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Veterinary Microbiology 55, 277-287.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zimmerman, J., Yoon, K. Y., Pirtle, E. C., Sanderson, T. J., Hill, H. T., Wills, R. W., McGinley, M. J. & Brevik, A. (1993). Susceptibility of four avian species to PRRS virus. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Livestock Conservation Institute, pp. 107–108. St Louis, USA.
  45. Zimmerman, J. J., Yoon, K.-J., Wills, R. W. & Swenson, S. L. ( 1997a; ). General overview of PRRSV: a perspective from the United States. Veterinary Microbiology 55, 187-196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zimmerman, J. J., Yoon, K.-J., Pirtle, E. C., Wills, R. W., Sanderson, T. J. & McGinley, M. J. ( 1997b; ). Studies of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in avian species. Veterinary Microbiology 55, 329-336.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zuckermann, F. A., Zsak, L., Mettenleiter, T. C. & Ben-Porat, T. ( 1990; ). Pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gIII is a major target antigen for murine and swine virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Journal of Virology 64, 802-812.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-1-171
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-81-1-171
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error