1887

Abstract

A chimeric long terminal repeat (LTR) containing the whole LTR of a human endogenous retrovirus-like element of the H family (HERV-H) inserted downstream of the core enhancer region of the 5′ LTR of a HERV-K retroelement was detected and sequenced in the human 19p12 locus, known to be enriched with genes encoding zinc finger proteins. Similar chimeras were also detected in human chromosomes 10 and Y in human-hamster hybrid cells containing individual human chromosomes. This finding was interpreted as evidence of transpositions of the chimera in the genome. PCR analyses detected the chimera in the genomes of chimpanzee and gorilla, but not in that of orangutan. These data demonstrate that the chimera appeared in the primate germ cells more than 10 million years ago, before divergence of the human/chimpanzee and the gorilla lineages. The combination of the two LTRs forms a new regulatory system that can be involved in nearby gene expression.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-4-835
1999-04-01
2022-05-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/80/4/0800835a.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-4-835&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akopov S. B., Nikolaev L. G., Khil P. P., Lebedev Y. B., Sverdlov E. D. 1998; Long terminal repeats of human endogenous retrovirus K family (HERV-K) specifically bind host cell nuclear proteins. FEBS Letters 421:229–233
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderssen S., Sjottem E., Svineng G., Johansen T. 1997; Comparative analyses of LTRs of the ERV-H family of primate-specific retrovirus-like elements located from marmoset, African green monkey, and man. Virology 234:14–30
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ashworth L. K., Batzer M. A., Brandriff B., Branscomb E., de Jong P., Garcia E., Garnes J. A., Gordon L. A., Lamerdin J. E., Lennon G., Mohrenweiser H., Olsen A., Slezak T., Carrano A. V. 1995; An integrated metric physical map of human chromosome 19. Nature Genetics 11:422–427
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Di Cristofano A., Strazzullo M., Longo L., La Mantia G. 1995; Characterization and genomic mapping of the ZNF80 locus: expression of this zinc-finger gene is driven by a solitary LTR of ERV9 endogenous retroviral family. Nucleic Acids Research 23:2823–2830
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Goodchild N. L., Wilkinson D. A., Mager D. L. 1993; Recent evolutionary expansion of a subfamily of RTVL-H human endogenous retrovirus-like elements. Virology 196:778–788
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kazmierczak B., Pohnke Y., Bullerdiek J. 1996; Fusion transcripts between the HMGIC gene and RTVL-H-related sequences in mesenchymal tumors without cytogenetic aberrations. Genomics 38:223–226
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Kidwell M. G., Lisch D. 1997; Transposable elements as sources of variation in animals and plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94:7704–7711
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Lavrentieva I., Khil P., Vinogradova T., Akhmedov A., Lapuk A., Shakhova O., Lebedev Y., Monastyrskaya G., Sverdlov E. D. 1998; Subfamilies and nearest-neighbour dendrogram for the LTRs of human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K mapped on human chromosome 19: physical neighbourhood does not correlate with identity level. Human Genetics 102:107–116
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Leib-Mosch C., Haltmeier M., Werner T., Geigl E. M., Brack-Werner R., Francke U., Erfle V., Hehlmann R. 1993; Genomic distribution and transcription of solitary HERV-K LTRs. Genomics 18:261–269
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lindeskog M., Medstrand P., Cunningham A. A., Blomberg J. 1998; Coamplification and dispersion of adjacent human endogenous retroviral HERV-H and HERV-E elements: presence of spliced hybrid transcripts in normal leukocytes. Virology 244:219–229
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lower R., Lower J., Kurth R. 1996; The viruses in all of us: characteristics and biological significance of human endogenous retrovirus sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93:5177–5184
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Nelson D. T., Goodchild N. L., Mager D. L. 1996; Gain of Sp1 sites and loss of repressor sequences associated with a young, transcriptionally active subset of HERV-H endogenous long terminal repeats. Virology 220:213–218
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Schulte A. M., Wellstein A. 1998; Structure and phylogenetic analysis of an endogenous retrovirus inserted into the human growth factor gene pleiotrophin. Journal of Virology 72:6065–6072
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Schulte A. M., Lai S., Kurtz A., Czubayko F., Riegel A. T., Wellstein A. 1996; Human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma expression of the growth factor pleiotrophin attributable to germ-line insertion of an endogenous retrovirus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93:14759–14764
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sjottem E., Anderssen S., Johansen T. 1996; The promoter activity of long terminal repeats of the HERV-H family of human retrovirus-like elements is critically dependent on Sp1 family proteins interacting with a GC/GT box located immediately 3 to the TATA-box. Journal of Virology 70:188–198
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Vinogradova T., Volik S., Lebedev Y., Shevchenko Y., Lavrentyeva I., Khil P., Grzeschik K.-H., Ashworth L. K., Sverdlov E. D. 1997; Positioning of 72 potentially full size LTRs of human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K on the human chromosome 19 map. Occurrence of the LTRs in human gene sites. Gene 199:255–264
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Zsíros J., Jebbink M. F., Lukashov V. V., Voûte P. A., Berkhout B. 1998; Evolutionary relationships within a subgroup of HERV-K- related human endogenous retroviruses. Journal of General Virology 79:61–70
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-4-835
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-80-4-835
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error