Electrophoresis-mobility-shift assays with nuclear extracts from a feline renal cell line and a T-lymphoblastoid cell line revealed that the AP-1 and ATF sites of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) TM2 strain had similar protein-binding properties to those of FIV Petaluma strain and consensus sequences of AP-1 and ATF sites, and that nuclear factors binding to these sites differed between the two cell lines. Cross-competition and gel-supershift assays demonstrated that the AP-1 and ATF sites had similar protein-binding properties. The effects of internal deletions of AP-1 and/or ATF sites on the basal promoter activity were also examined. Although deletion of either site moderately reduced activity, a mutant deleted in both sites had dramatically reduced activity. Therefore, we suggest that these two sites co-operatively regulate transcriptional activity of the promoter.


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