1887

Abstract

We have investigated the induction of cell death in cultured cells by the virulent SFV4 and avirulent A7 strains of Semliki Forest virus (SFV). In BHK cells, death occurred by a typical apoptotic mechanism, as did the death of oligodendrocytes in glial cell cultures. For cerebellar neuron cultures, virus- induced death was due to necrosis. Although the SFV4 and A7 strains did not differ in the mechanism of induction of cell death, the virulent SFV4 strain did multiply to a higher titre in cultured neurons than the avirulent A7 strain. This is consistent with previous animal studies which indicate that the virulence of SFV strains is controlled by rapidity of multiplication in the CNS, leading to a lethal threshold of damage, rather than differential cell tropism or cell death mechanisms. The immune- mediated demyelination induced by avirulent strains may be triggered by apoptosis of oligodendrocytes, the consequences of which are obscured by death for virulent strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-7-1559
1997-07-01
2022-05-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/78/7/9225029.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-7-1559&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Atkins G. J. 1983; The avirulent A7 strain of Semliki Forest virus has reduced cytopathogenicity for neuroblastoma cells compared to the virulent L10 strain. Journal of General Virology 64:1401–1404
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Atkins G. J., Sheahan B. J. 1982; Semliki Forest virus neurovirulence mutants have altered cytopathogenicity for central nervous system cells. Infection and Immunity 36:333–341
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Atkins G. J., Sheahan B. J., Dimmock N. J. 1985; Semliki Forest virus infection of mice: a model for genetic and molecular analysis of viral pathogenicity. Journal of General Virology 66:395–408
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Atkins G. J., Sheahan B. J., Mooney D. A. 1990; Pathogenicity of Semliki Forest virus for the rat central nervous system and primary rat neural cell cultures - possible implications for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 16:57–68
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Atkins G. J., Balluz I. M., Glasgow G. M., Marbruk M. J. E. M. F., Natale V. A. I., Smyth J. M. B., Sheahan B. J. 1994; . Analysis ofthe molecular basis of neuropathogenesis of RNA viruses in experimental animals: relevance for human disease? Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 20:91–102
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Balluz I. M., Glasgow G. M., Killen H. M., Mabruk M. J. E. M. F., Sheahan B. J., Atkins G. J. 1993; Virulent and avirulent strains of Semliki Forest virus show similar cell tropism for the murine central nervous system but differ in the severity and rate of induction of cytolytic damage. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 19:233–239
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barres B. A., Hart I. K., Coles H. S. R., Burne J. F., Voyvodic J. T., Richardson W. D., Raff M. C. 1992; Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Cell 70:31–46
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Batistatu A., Greene L. A. 1993; Internucleosomal DNA cleavage and neuronal cell survival/death. Journal of Cell Biology 122:523–532
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bruce C. B., Chapman J., Suckling A. J., Rumsby M. G. 1984; Infection of rat brain primary cell cultures with an avirulent A7 strain of Semliki Forest virus. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 66:77–90
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cohen G. M., Sun X.-M., Snowden R. T., Dinsdale D., Skilletter D. N. 1992; Key morphological features of apoptosis may occur in the absence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Biochemical Journal 286:331–334
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fazakerley J. K., Pathak S., Scallan M., Amor S., Dyson H. 1993; Replication of the A7(74) strain of Semliki Forest virus is restricted in neurons. Virology 195:627–637
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fernandes S. R., Cotter T. 1993; Activation of a calcium/ magnesium independent endonuclease in human leukemic cell apoptosis. Anti-Cancer Research 13:1253–1260
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gates M. C., Sheahan B. J., Atkins G. J. 1984; The pathogenicity of the M9 mutant of Semliki Forest virus in immune-compromised mice. Journal of General Virology 65:73–80
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gates M. C., Sheahan B. J., O’Sullivan M. A., Atkins G. J. 1985; The pathogenicity of the A7, M9 and L10 strains of Semliki Forest virus for weanling mice and primary mouse brain cell cultures. Journal ofGeneral Virology 66:2365–2373
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Glasgow G. M., Sheahan B. J., Atkins G. J., Wahlberg J. M., Salminen A., Liljeström P. 1991; Two mutations in the envelope glycoprotein E2 of Semliki forest virus affecting the maturation and entry patterns of the virus alter pathogenicity for mice. Virology 185:741–748
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hockenbery D. 1995; Defining apoptosis. American Journal of Pathology 146:16–19
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Levine B., Huang Q., Isaacs J. T., Reed J. C., Griffin D. E., Hardwick J. M. 1993; Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene. Nature 361:739–742
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Martin D. P., Schmidt R. E., DiStefano P. S., Lowry O. H., Carter J. G., Johnson E. M. 1988; Inhibitors of protein synthesis and RNA synthesis prevent neuronal death caused by nerve growth factor deprivation. Journal of Cell Biology 106:829–844
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mokhtarian F., Shi Y., Zhu P., Grob D. 1994; Immune responses, and autoimmune outcome, during virus infection of the central nervous system. Cellular Immunology 157:195–210
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Natale V. A. I., Sheahan B. J., Atkins G. J. 1993; Effect of rubella virus infection on the development of rat cerebellar cells in culture. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 19:530–534
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sheahan B. J., Gates M. C., Caffrey J. F., Atkins G. J. 1983; Oligodendrocyte infection and demyelination produced in mice by the M9 mutant of Semliki Forest virus. Acta Neuropathologica 60:257–265
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Smyth J. M. B., Sheahan B. J., Atkins G. J. 1990; Multiplication of virulent and demyelinating Semliki Forest virus in the mouse central nervous system - consequences in BALB/c and SJL mice. Journal of General Virology 71:2575–2583
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Subak-Sharpe I., Dyson H., Fazakerley J. 1993; In vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells prevents lesions of demyelination in Semliki Forest virus infection. Journal of Virology 67:7629–7633
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ubol S., Tucker P. C., Griffin D. E., Hardwick J. M. 1994; Neurovirulent strains of alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: Role of a single amino acid change in the E2 glycoprotein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA: 915202–5206
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Walker A. G., Chapman J. A., Bruce C. B., Rumsby M. G. 1984; Immunocytochemical characterisation of cell cultures grown from dissociated 1-2-day post-natal rat cerebral tissue. Journal of Neuro-immunology 7:1–20
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-7-1559
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-78-7-1559
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error