Envelope glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essential for penetration but is not required for cell-to-cell spread. When animals are inoculated with a phenotypically complemented PRV gD mutant, the virus is able to spread locally by means of direct cell-to-cell transmission, but progeny virions released by infected cells are non-infectious because they lack gD. Therefore, the virus cannot be transmitted from inoculated animals to other animals. This property makes a PRV gD mutant an attractive candidate as a safe vaccine vector. To examine whether a self-restricted, non-transmissible PRV mutant can be used as a biologically safe vaccine vector, a gD/gE-negative PRV recombinant virus which expresses envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus was constructed. Vaccination of pigs showed that the recombinant virus was able to protect pigs against both Aujeszky's disease and classical swine fever.


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