1887

Abstract

A novel endogenous retrovirus (ERV) designated XA34 was isolated from a human glioma cDNA library using low stringency hybridization with an ERV-9 probe. Southern blot hybridizations with human genomic DNA revealed the presence of approximately 16 genomic copies closely related to XA34. Sequencing of a 2303 bp cDNA clone of XA34 showed that it belongs to a new ERV family. The XA34 ERV has recombined with an ERV-9-like retrovirus resulting in a truncated ERV-9-like region that ends with an Alul-like 3′ LTR. By using PCR, we isolated ≈ 940 bp fragments from three additional members of this family, XA35, XA36 and XA37. A fifth member, XA38, was isolated and sequenced as a 4729 bp genomic clone. The genomic XA38 clone spans from towards the 3′ flanking region. The XA38 virus contains a more cryptic region. The XA38 is truncated in the transmembrane region and the virus then ends with three Alu repeats. Southern blot studies with human, chimpanzee, orangutan and squirrel monkey DNA show the presence of the XA34 family in all these species. That both the New and Old World monkeys have this ERV family means that the integration and/or amplification in the primate germ-line of XA34 probably took place about 40–45 million years ago. The phylogeny and the closest relatives to ERV XA34 are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-8-1631
1996-08-01
2021-10-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/77/8/JV0770081631.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-8-1631&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ausubel F. M., Brent R., Kingston R. E., Moore D. D., Seidman J. G., Smith J. A., Struhl K. 1987 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology New York: Greene Publishing Associates and Wiley-Interscience;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bonner T. I., O’Connell C., Cohen M. 1982; Cloned endogenous retroviral sequences from human DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 79:4709–4713
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cianciolo G. J., Copeland T. D., Oroszlan S., Snyderman R. 1985; Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by a synthetic peptide homologous to envelope proteins of retroviruses. Science 230:453–455
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Devereux J., Haeberli P., Smithies O. 1984; A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Research 12:387–395
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gallo R. C. 1995; Human retroviruses in the second decade: a personal perspective. Nature Medicine 1:753–759
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Goodchild N. L., Wilkinson D. A., Mager D. L. 1993; Recent evolutionary expansion of a subfamily of RTVL-H human endogenous retrovirus-like elements. Virology 196:778–788
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hirose Y., Takamatsu M., Harada F. 1993; Presence of env genes in members of the RTVL-H family of human endogenous retrovirus-like elements. Virology 192:52–61
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kato N., Pfeifer-Ohisson S., Kato M., Larsson E., Rydnert J., Ohisson R., Cohen M. 1987; Tissue-specific expression of human provirus ERV3 mRNA in human placenta: two of the ERV3 mRNAs contain human cellular sequences. Journal of Virology 61:2182–2191
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kimura M. 1983 The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kjellman C., Sjögren H.-O., Widegren B. 1995; The Y chromosome: a graveyard for endogenous retroviruses. Gene 161:163–170
    [Google Scholar]
  11. La Mantia G., Maglione D., Pengue G., Di Christofano A., Simeone A., Lanfrancone L., Lania L. 1991; Identification and characterization of novel human endogenous retroviral sequences, preferentially expressed in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells. Nucleic Acids Research 19:1513–1520
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Larsson E., Kato N., Cohen M. 1989; Human endogenous proviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 148:115–132
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lieb-Mösch C., Brack-Werner R., Werner T., Bachmann M., Faff O., Erfle V., Hehlmann R. 1990; Endogenous retroviral elements of human DNA. Cancer Research 50:5636s–5642s
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lyden T. W., Johnson P. M., Mwenda J. M., Rote N. S. 1994; Ultrastructural characterization of endogenous retroviral particles isolated from normal human placentas. Biology of Reproduction 51:152–157
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mager D. L., Freeman J. D. 1987; Human endogenous retroviruslike genome with type C pol sequences and gag sequences related to human T-cell lymphotropic viruses. Journal of Virology 61:4060–4066
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mager D. L., Freeman J. D. 1995; HERV-H endogenous retroviruses: presence in the New World branch but amplification in the Old World primate lineage. Virology 213:395–404
    [Google Scholar]
  17. O’Connell C., O’Brien S., Nash W. G., Cohen M. 1984; Erv3, a full- length human endogenous provirus: chromosomal localization and evolutionary relationships. Virology 138:225–235
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rabson A. B., Hamagishi Y., Steel P. E., Tykocinski M., Martin M. A. 1985; Characterization of human endogenous retroviral envelope RNA transcripts. Journal of Virology 56:176–182
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Repaske R., Steel P. E., O’Neill R. R., Rabson A. B., Martin M. A. 1985; Nucleotide sequence of a full-length human endogenous retroviral segment. Journal of Virology 54:764–772
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sanger F., Nicklen S., Coulson A. R. 1977; DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 74:5463–5467
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Swofford D. L. 1993; Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 3.1.1.. Illinois Natural History Survey; Champaign, III., USA.:
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wiberg U. H. 1987; Facts and considerations about sex-specific antigens. Human Genetics 76:207–219
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wilkinson D. A., Freeman J. D., Goodchild N. L., Kelleher C. A., Mager D. L. 1990; Autonomous expression of RTVLH endogenous retroviruslike elements in human cells. Journal of Virology 64:2157–2167
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wilkinson D. A., Goodchild N. L., Saxton T. M., Wood S., Mager D. L. 1993; Evidence for a functional subclass of the RTVLH family of human endogenous retrovirus-like sequences. Journal of Virology 67:2981–2989
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-8-1631
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-8-1631
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error