1887

Abstract

In order to determine the overall molecular heterogeneity of echoviruses (EVs) we performed a genetic analysis of the prototype strains. Nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences from different genomic regions (5′UTR, capsid protein-coding and 3D polymerase genes) were used for molecular comparisons. On the basis of a comparison of partial amino acid sequences from the capsid protein VP2, all the sequenced EVs excluding EV22 and EV23 form a single cluster which is genetically homogeneous. All previously sequenced coxsackie B viruses (CBVs) and coxsackievirus A9 also belong to this same genetic cluster. Similar results were obtained when the 5′UTR or 3D polymerase gene sequences were used in comparisons. When amino acid sequences of the major capsid proteins of EV1 and EV16 were compared to those of previously sequenced enteroviruses, the length of the loops connecting the β-sheets appeared to be relatively constant in the EV/CBV cluster. It can be concluded that EVs and CBVs have diverged relatively late in evolution.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-4-715
1996-04-01
2023-02-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/77/4/JV0770040715.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-4-715&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams J. H., Hudson D. E., Torii M., Ward G. E., Wellems T. E., Aikawa M., Miller L. H. 1990; The duffy receptor of Plasmodium knowlesi is located within the microsomes of invasive malaria merozoites. Cell 63:141–153
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Andino R., Rieckhof G. E., Baltimore D. 1990; A functional ribonucleoprotein complex forms around the 5′ end of poliovirus RNA. Cell 63:369–380
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andino R., Rieckhof G. E., Achacoso P. L., Baltimore D. 1993; Poliovirus RNA synthesis utilizes a RNP complex formed around the 5′-end of viral RNA. EMBO Journal 12:3587–3589
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Auvinen P., Hyypiä T. 1990; Echo viruses include genetically distinct serotypes. Journal of General Virology 71:2133–2139
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Auvinen P., Stanway G., Hyypiä T. 1989; Genetic diversity of enterovirus subgroups. Archives of Virology 104:175–186
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bergelson J. M., Shepley M. P., Chan B. M. C., Hemler M. E., Finberg R. W. 1992; Identification of the mtegrin VLA-2 as a receptor for echovirus 1. Science 225:1718–1720
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bergelson J. M., St John N., Kawaguchi S., Chan M., Stubdal H., Modlin J., Finberg R. W. 1993; Infection by echoviruses 1 and 8 depends on the α2 subunit of human VLA-2. Journal of Virology 67:6847–6852
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergelson J. M., Chan M., Solomon K. R., St John N. F., Huamao L., Finberg R. W. 1994; Decay-accelerating factor (CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored complement regulatory protein, is a receptor for several echoviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91:6245–6248
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Colter B. A.-G., Chapman N. M., Beck M. A., Pallansch M. A., Gauntt C. J., Tracy S. M. 1990; Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus. Journal of Virology 64:2692–2701
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Committee on the ECHO Viruses 1955 Science 122:1187–1188
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dahllund L., Nissinen L., Pulli T., Hyttinen V.-P., Stanway G., Hyypiä T. 1995; The genome of echo virus 11. Virus Research 35:215–222
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Devereux J., Haeberli P., Smithies O. 1984; A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Research 12:387–395
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Grist N. R., Bell E. J., Assaad F. 1978; Enteroviruses in human disease. Progress in Medical Virology 24:114–157
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Henikoff S. 1984; Unidirectional digestion with exonuclease III creates targeted breakpoints for DNA sequencing. Gene 28:351–359
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hogle J. M., Chow M., Filman D. J. 1985; Three dimensional structure of poliovirus at 2.9 Å resolution. Science 229:1358–1365
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hyypiä T., Stålhandske P., Vainionpää R., Pettersson U. 1984; Detection of enteroviruses by spot hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 19:436–438
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hyypiä T., Maaronen M., Auvinen P., Stålhandske P., Pettersson U., Stanway G., Hughes P., Ryan M., Almond J., Stenvik M., Hovi T. 1987; Nucleic acid sequence relationships between enterovirus serotypes. Molecular and Cellular Probes 1:169–176
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hyypiä T., Horsnell C., Maaronen M., Khan M., Kalkkinen N., Auvinen P., Kinnunen L., Stanway G. 1992; A distinct picornavirus group identified by sequence analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89:8847–8851
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kamer G., Argos P. 1984; Primary structural comparison of RNA-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses. Nucleic Acids Research 12:7269–7282
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Koonin E. V., Dolja V. V. 1993; Evolution and taxonomy of positive-strand RNA viruses: implications of comparative analysis of amino acid sequences. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28:375–430
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kraus W., Zimmermann H., Zimmermann A., Eggers H. J., Nelsen-Salz B. 1995; Infectious cDNA clones of echovirus 12 and a variant resistant against the uncoating inhibitor rhodanine differ in seven amino acids. Journal of Virology 69:5853–5858
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Minor P. D. 1990; Antigenic structure of picornaviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 161:121–154
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Murphy F. A., Fauquet C. M., Bishop D. H. L., Ghabrial S. A., Jarvis A. W., Martelli G. P., Mayo M. A., Summers M. D. (editors) 1995 Virus Taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses p. 332 Vienna & New York: Springer-Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nicholson R., Pelletier J., Le S.-Y., Sonenberg N. 1991; Structural and functional analysis of the ribosome landing pad of poliovirus: in vivo translation studies. Journal of Virology 65:5886–5894
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pelletier J., Kaplan G., Racaniello V. R., Sonenberg N. 1988; Cap-independent translation of the poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5′ noncoding region. Molecular and Cellular Biology 8:1103–1112
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pestova T. V., Hellen C. U. T., Wimmer E. 1991; Translation of poliovirus RNA: role of an essential cis-acting oligopyrimidine element within the 5′ nontranslated region and involvement of a cellular 57-kilodalton protein. Journal of Virology 65:6194–6204
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pilipenko E. V., Blinov V. M., Romanova L. I., Sinyakov A. N., Maslova S. V., Agol V. I. 1989; Conserved structural domains in the 5′-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes: an analysis of the segment controlling translation and neuro virulence. Virology 168:201–209
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pöyry T., Hyypiä T., Horsnell C., Kinnunen L., Hovi T., Stanway G. 1994; Molecular analysis of coxsackievirus A16 reveals a new genetic group of enteroviruses. Virology 202:982–987
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pulli T., Koskimies P., Hyypiä T. 1995; Molecular comparison of coxsackie A virus serotypes. Virology 211:30–38
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rivera V. M., Welsh J. D., Maizel J. V. 1988; Comparative sequence analysis of the 5′ noncoding region of the enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. Virology 165:42–50
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Roivainen M., Piirainen L., Hovi T., Virtanen I., Riikonen T., Heino J., Hyypiä T. 1994; Entry of coxsackievirus A9 into host cells: specific interactions with αvβ3 integrin, the vitronectin receptor. Virology 203:357–365
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Romero J. R., Rotbart H. A. 1995; Sequence analysis of the downstream nontranslated region of seven echoviruses with different neurovirulence phenotypes. Journal of Virology 69:1370–1375
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shafren D. R., Bates R. C., Agrez M. V., Herd R. L., Burns G. F., Barry R. D. 1995; Coxsackieviruses B1, B3, and B5 use decay accelerating factor as a receptor for cell attachment. Journal of Virology 69:3873–3877
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Skinner M. A., Racaniello V. R., Dunn G., Cooper J., Minor P. D., Almond J. W. 1989; New model for the secondary structure of the 5′ non-coding RNA of poliovirus is supported by biochemical and genetic data that also show that RNA secondary structure is important in neuro virulence. Journal of Molecular Biology 207:379–392
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Stanway G., Hughes P. J., Mountford R. C., Reeve P., Minor P., Schild G. C., Almond J. W. 1984; Comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of the neurovirulent poliovirus P3/Leon/37 and its attenuated Sabin vaccine derivate P3/Leon 12 alb. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 81:1539–1543
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Stanway G., Kalkkinen N., Roivainen M., Ghazi F., Khan M., Smyth M., Meurman O., Hyypiä T. 1994; Molecular and biological characteristics of echovirus 22, a representative of a new picornavirus group. Journal of Virology 68:8232–8238
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ward T., Pipkin P. A., Clarkson N. A., Stone D. M., Minor P. D., Almond J. W. 1994; Decay-accelerating factor CD55 is identified as the receptor for echovirus 7 using CELICS, a rapid immune-focal cloning method. EMBO Journal 13:5070–5074
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Werner G., Rosenwirth B., Bauer E., Seifert J.-M., Werner F.-J., Besemer J. 1986; Molecular cloning and sequence determination of the genomic regions encoding protease and genome-linked protein of three picornaviruses. Journal of Virology 57:1084–1093
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Young N. A. 1973; Polioviruses, coxsackieviruses and echoviruses: comparison of the genomes by RNA hybridization. Journal of Virology 11:832–839
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-4-715
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-77-4-715
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error