Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes persistent infections in humans, in most cases leading to the development of AIDS. HIV-1 infects CD4 lymphocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs, and microglia in the central nervous system (Gartner , 1986; Koenig , 1986; Pope , 1994). This virus tropism correlates with expression of the cell surface antigen CD4, which has been shown to be the principal receptor interacting with the virus surface glycoprotein, gp 120 (Dalgleish , 1984; Klatzmann , 1984). However, cell surface expression of CD4 alone is not sufficient to confer susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Recently, several members of the chemokine receptor family of G-protein coupled seven transmembrane spanning proteins were identified as additional coreceptors (Alkhatib , 1996; Choe , 1996; Deng , 1996; Doranz , 1996; Dragic , 1996; Feng , 1996).


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