Many endoparasitic wasps inject, along with the egg, polydnavirus into their insect hosts, the virus being a prerequisite for successful parasitoid development. The genome of polydnaviruses consists of multiple circular dsDNA molecules of variable size. We show for a 12 kbp segment of the braconid (CiV12) that it is integrated into the wasp genome. This is the first direct demonstration of integration for a bracovirus. PCR data indicated that the integrated form of CiV12 was present in all male and female stages investigated while the excised circular virus DNA only appeared in females after a specific stage in pupal-adult development. The data also indicated that after excision of virus DNA the genomic DNA was rejoined. This has not yet been reported for any polydnavirus. Sequence analyses in the junction regions revealed the presence of an imperfect consensus sequence of 15 nucleotides in CiV12, in each terminus of the integrated virus DNA and in the rejoined genomic DNA. Within these repeats two sequence types (ATA, TAC) were observed in the various virus clones and in the clones encompassing the rejoined genomic DNA; they corresponded to the sequence type in the right and left junction, respectively. To explain this, we propose a model of virus DNA replication in which the genomic DNA is folded to juxtapose the direct repeat of the left with that of the right junction; recombination at specific sites would then yield the two types of virus and rejoined genomic DNA.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error