This is the first report which gives a general survey about viroid variant composition in a vineyard and within single plants. A German vineyard with 20-year-old grapevines () of the cultivars ‘Bacchus’ and ‘Kerner’ was analysed for viroid infections. Only grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd1) and the grapevine isolate of hop stunt viroid (HSVdg) were detected. Both viroids occur in several sequence variations. Eighteen novel GYSVd1 variants and two previously published HSVdg main variants with six new minor variants were found. They were randomly spread in the vineyard. The distributions of GYSVd1 and HSVdg main variants and their accompanying subvariants differed even in neighbouring plants. We conclude that these individual viroid variant profiles are the result of 20 years of independent evolution, i.e. mutation and selection, in each single plant. Four of the nine GYSVd1 main variants were mutated in the inverted repeats bordering the central conserved region. These base substitutions decreased the thermodynamic stability of a metastable structure called hairpin I.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error