We constructed a series of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)/simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac (SIVmac) chimeric viruses having and/or genes of either HIV-1 or SIVmac based on a chimeric virus with LTRs, and derived from SIVmac and and from HIV-1. All of the chimeric viruses replicated in human and macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in several CD4 human cell lines, though their growth potentials were slightly different depending on whether and were from HIV-1 or SIVmac, or were defective. The presence of accelerated replication in all the cells used and the replication of each chimera appeared to reflect that of the parental virus from which was derived. The presence of had no clear effect in human and monkey PBMCs, but the replication of each chimera was influenced by the origin of in H9 and A3.01 cells. NM-3rN, which carries HIV-1 and SIVmac , was inoculated intravenously into three rhesus monkeys, three cynomolgus monkeys and two pig-tailed monkeys. From 2 to 14 weeks after inoculation, viruses were consistently re-isolated from all the monkeys and virus loads were as high as that of SIVmac reported previously. The results indicate that infection with NM-3rN is more efficient than any of our previous chimeric viruses and suggest that NM-3rN, having HIV-1 Env, will be a useful challenge virus for evaluating AIDS vaccines based on HIV-1 Env in macaque monkeys instead of chimpanzees.


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