The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA genome of Jembrana disease virus (JDV), a lentivirus that causes an acute disease syndrome in Bali cattle (), is reported. In addition to the and genes and flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs) that characterize all retroviruses, a number of accessory genes represented by small multiply spliced ORFs in the central and 3′-terminal regions of the genome, including and that are typical of lentiviruses, were identified. The genome of JDV was 7732 bp in length, 750 bp smaller than the genome of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) strain BIV127. A striking feature of the genome was the many deletions relative to BIV127, the largest of which were 471 bp from the gene and 157 bp from the U3 (promoter) region in the LTR. There were also several insertions of up to 33 bp in the JDV genome relative to BIV127 found in the gene and small ORFs that overlap . Other significant genomic differences between JDV and BIV127 included changes to -acting sequences throughout the genome such as promoter and enhancer sequences in the LTR, the -activation response region, splice sites and frameshift sequences; alterations to the precursor protein cleavage sites and thus the processed products; loss of the and ORFs; and amino acid changes in all coding regions. The significance of these changes is discussed in relation to the differences in pathogenicity between JDV and BIV.


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