1887

Abstract

multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) contains a 966 bp ORF that encodes a papain type cysteine proteinase with cathepsin L-like characteristics. Using Western blot analysis of infected cell extracts we showed that proteinase has 35.5 kDa and 32 kDa precursor forms which are processed to a 27.5 kDa mature form in a manner characteristic of papain and cathepsin L. proteinase activity was greatest under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) and was reduced in the presence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitors, leupeptin and E64. Urea, a known enhancer of cathepsin L activity, also enhanced proteinase activity. AcMNPV proteinase was detected post-mortem in tissues of insects infected with wild-type (wt) virus. Insects infected with a deletion mutant did not become flaccid after death as is normally observed with wt AcMNPV infections. These findings indicate a link between activity and degradation of host tissues during virus pathogenesis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-5-1091
1995-05-01
2022-05-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/76/5/JV0760051091.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-5-1091&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barrett A. J., Kirschke H. 1981; Cathepsin B, cathepsin H and cathepsin L. Methods in Enzymology 80:535–561
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brown M., Faulkner P. 1978; Plaque assay of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses in cell culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 36:31–35
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown M., Crawford A. M., Faulkner P. 1979; Genetic analysis of a baculovirus, Autographa califomica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 31:190–198
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cochran M. A., Carstens E. B., Eaton B. E., Faulkner P. 1982; Molecular cloning and physical mapping of restriction endonuclease fragments of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 41:940–946
    [Google Scholar]
  5. DeDuve C. 1975; Exploring cells with a centrifuge. Science 189:186–194
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dohke K. 1973; Studies on the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme from cuticle of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. I. Activation reaction by the enzyme. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 157:203–209
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Faulkner P., Henderson J. F. 1972; Serial passage of a nuclear polyhedrosis disease virus of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) in a continuous tissue culture cell line. Virology 50:920–924
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gardiner G. R., Stockdale H. 1975; Two tissue culture media for production of lepidopteran cells and nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 25:363–370
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Guarino L. A. 1990; Identification of a viral gene encoding a ubiquitin-like protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 87:409–413
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Harlow E., Lane D. 1988 Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hawtin R., Arnold K., Chappel L. H., Ayres M. D., Kitts P. A., Gooday G. W., Possee R. D. 1992; Identification of a chitinase gene in the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Presentation at the 11th American Society of Virology Meeting Ithaca, New York, USA. (Abstract). Bethesda: American Society of Virology;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hill J. E., Kuzio J., Mackinnon E. A., Faulkner P. 1992; Identification and sequence analysis of the v-cath gene of Choristo-neura fumiferana nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Unpublished. EMBL Bank accession number M97906:
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kitts P. A., Possee R. D. 1993; A method for producing recombinant baculovirus expression vectors at high frequency. Bio/Techniques 14:810–816
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Komuves G. G., Sass M., Kovacs J. 1985; Autophagocytosis in the larval midgut cells of Pieris brassicae during metamorphosis. Cell Tissue Research 240:215–221
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Laemmli U. K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 277:680–685
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lai-Fook J. 1966; The repair of wounds in the integument of insects. Journal of Insect Physiology 12:195–226
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Laycock M. V., Mackay R. M., DiFruscio M., Gallant J. W. 1991; Molecular cloning of three dDNAs that encode cysteine proteinases in the digestive gland of the American lobster (Homaris americanus). FEBS Letters 292:115–120
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lonsdale-Eccles J. D., Grab D. J. 1987; Lysosomal and non-lysosomal peptidyl hydrolases of the bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei . European Journal of Biochemistry 169:467–475
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Low P., Doherty F. J., Sass M., Kovacs J., Mayer R. J., Laszlo L. 1993; Immunogold localization of ubiquitin–protein conjugates in Sf9 insect cells: implications for the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. FEBS Letters 316:152–156
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Majima K., Kobara R., Maeda S. 1993; Molecular cloning and physical mapping of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 67:7513–7521
    [Google Scholar]
  21. O’Brien J. J., Skinner D. M. 1988; Characterization of enzymes that degrade crab exoskeleton: II. Two acid proteinase activities. Journal of Experimental Zoology 246:124–131
    [Google Scholar]
  22. O’Farrell P. Z., Goodman H. M., O’Farrell P. H. 1977; High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of basic as well as acidic proteins. Cell 12:1133–1142
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ohkawa T., Majima K., Maeda S. 1994; A cysteine proteinase encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 68:6619–6625
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pennock G. D., Shoemaker C., Miller L. K. 1984; Strong and regulated expression of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase in insect cells with a baculovirus vector. Molecular and Cell Biology 4:399–406
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Possee R. D., Sun T. P., Howard S. C., Ayres M. D., Hill-Perkins M., Gearing K. L. 1991; Nucleotide sequence of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus 94 kbp Eco RI-I and -R (polyhedrin gene) region. Virology 185:229–241
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rawlings N. D., Pearl L. H., Buttle D. J. 1992; The baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome includes a papain-like sequence. Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 373:1211–1215
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Riemann S., Kirschke H., Wiederanders B., Brouwer A., Shaw E., Bohley P. 1982; Inhibition of cysteine proteinase activity by pepstatin in different organs from some animals and isolated cells from rat liver. Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica 41:83–88
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Samuels R. I., Reynolds S. E. 1993; Molting fluid enzymes of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: timing of proteolytic and chitinolytic activity in relation to pre-ecdysial development. Archives of Insect Biochemistry Physiology 24:33–44
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sarath G., De la Motte R. S., Wagner F. W. 1989; Protease assay methods. (Benyon, R. J. and Bond, J. S., eds.). In Proteolytic Enzymes: A Practical Approach pp 25–54 Edited by Benyon R. J., Bond J. S. Oxford: IRL Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. St. Leger R. J., Cooper R. M., Charnley A. K. 1988; The effect of melanisation of Manduca sexta cutical on growth and infection of Metarhiiium anisopliae . Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 52:459–170
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Vaughn J. E., Yeun L., Richardson C. D. 1977; The establishment of two insect lines from the insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In Vitro 13:213–217
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Vernet T., Tessier D. C., Richardson C., Laliberte F., Khouri H. E., Bell A. W., Storer A. C., Thomas D. Y. 1990; Secretion of functional papain precursor from insect cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265:16661–16666
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Whitford M., Steward S., Kuzio J., Faulkner P. 1989; Identification and sequence analysis of a gene encoding gp67, an abundant envelope glycoprotein of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Virology 63:1393–1399
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wiederanders B., Kirschke H., Schaper S. 1987; The azocasein-urea-pepstatin assay discriminates between lysosomal proteinases. Biomedica Acta1477–1483
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Williams G. V., Rohel D. Z., Kuzio J., Faulkner P. 1989; A cytopathological investigation of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus p10 gene function using insertion/deletion mutants. Journal of General Virology 70:187–202
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-5-1091
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-76-5-1091
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error