Genomes of two isolates of tomato leaf curl geminivirus from India (ToLCV-India) have been sequenced. ToLCV-India contains A and B components, both of which are required for systemic movement and symptom development. The two isolates have 94% sequence identity but one isolate gave mild symptoms in and tomato. The genome organization of ToLCV-India is similar to other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs) with bipartite genomes. However, it contains an additional ORF, AV3, that has not been reported for other WTGs. Its coat protein (CP) sequence is highly homologous to that of Indian cassava mosaic virus (90%). Two mutations that truncated the CP after amino acids 65 or 172 did not affect systemic movement and symptom development in either or tomato. However, the symptoms caused by mutant viruses were different from those in plants infected with unmodified viruses, and plants infected with the mutants had markedly reduced amounts of single-stranded viral DNA. Comparison of sequences and other biological features of ToLCV-India with other geminiviruses showed that ToLCV-India is a distinct virus and is related to the WTGs from the Old World. It is similar to African cassava mosaic virus in its requirement for B component and dispensability of coat protein for symptom development, unlike other geminiviruses that infect tomato in the Old World. It is proposed that ToLCV-India evolved more recently as compared to other geminiviruses that infect tomato in the Old World.


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