The nucleotide sequence of carnation ringspot virus (CRSV) RNA-1, the type member of the dianthovirus genus, has been determined. The 3756 nucleotide genomic RNA-1 contains three large open reading frames (ORFs), capable of encoding 27K, 54K and 38K polypeptides. In addition, a small ORF encoding a 10K polypeptide at the 3′ terminus of the RNA has been identified. The gene organization of CRSV RNA-1 is similar to those of red clover necrotic mosaic (RCNMV) and sweet clover necrotic mosaic (SCNMV) diantho-viruses with the exception that CRSV RNA-1 contains the additional 3′-terminal ORF. The 27K and 54K proteins possess significant sequence similarity to corresponding polypeptides of the other dianthoviruses. The 54K protein also contains the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif. The identification of a shifty heptanucleotide preceding the p27 ORF termination codon and a predicted secondary structure following the terminator suggest that a translational frameshifting event allows translation to continue past the p27 ORF into the p54 ORF, which is in the -1 frame, generating an 88K fusion protein. Amino acid sequence alignment of the 38K protein with the corresponding RCNMV and SCNMV polypeptides indicate that this is the viral capsid protein.


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