1887

Abstract

The sequence of 10079 bp corresponding to the overlapping I H and I G restriction fragments of the genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) strain U1102 was determined. The sequence contains six complete open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs located at the 5′ and 3′ ends of the I H and I G fragments respectively. Seven of these ORFs have recognizable homologues only in the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), no obvious counterparts being detectable in the genomes of the human alphaherpesviruses, varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 or the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus. The DNA sequenced is located proximal to the left repeat of the HHV-6 genome outside the well recognized region encompassing conserved herpesvirus gene blocks. A close collinear relationship is evident between the HHV-6 ORFs identified in this study and their counterparts in HCMV, ORFs UL23, UL24 and UL27 to UL31. Four of the HHV-6 ORFs, SHL1, SHL2, SFL1 and SSL2, are related to members of the HCMV US22 family of proteins, which are themselves tandemly arranged and located predominantly within the unique short and the left end of the unique long region of the prototype HCMV strain AD169 genome. Two adjacent HHV-6 ORFs, SSL1 and SHL3, are related to HCMV UL27. The identification of this gene set in addition to the HHV-6 ORFs with amino acid sequence similarity to the HCMV US22 family indicates a particularly close relationship between these two human herpesviruses, and suggests that the clustering of these related tandemly arranged genes may be a general feature of betaherpesvirus-type genomes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-7-1661
1992-07-01
2021-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/73/7/JV0730071661.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-7-1661&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Baer R., Bankier A. T., Biggin M. D., Deininger P. L., Farrell P. J., Gibson T. J., Hatfull G., Hudson G. S., Satchwell S. C., Séguin C., Tuffnell P. S., Barrell B. G. 1984; DNA sequence and expression of the B95-8 Epstein-Barr virus genome. Nature, London 310:207–211
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bankier A. T., Weston K. M., Barrell B. G. 1987; Random cloning and sequencing by the M13/dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. Methods in Enzymology 155:51–93
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barton G. J., Sternberg M. J. E. 1987; Evaluation and improvements in the automatic alignment of protein sequences. Protein Engineering 1:89–94
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bird A. P. 1980; DNA methylation and the frequency of CpG in animal DNA. Nucleic Acids Research 8:1499–1504
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Briggs M., Fox J., Tedder R. S. 1988; Age prevalence of antibody to human herpesvirus-6. Lancet i:40–41
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chee M. S., Bankier A. T., Beck S., Bohni R., Brown C. M., Cerny R., Horsnell T., Hutchinson C. A., Kouzarides T. III, Martignetti J. A., Preddie E., Satchwell S. C., Tomlinson P., Weston K. M., Barrell B. G. 1990; Analysis of the protein coding content of the sequence of human cytomegalovirus AD 169. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 154:125–169
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davison A. J., McGeoch D. J. 1986; Evolutionary comparisons of the S segments in the genomes of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus. Journal of General Virology 67:597–611
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davison A. J., Scott J. E. 1986; The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus. Journal of General Virology 67:1759–1816
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Davison A. J., Taylor P. 1987; Genetic relations between varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. Journal of General Virology 68:1067–1079
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Deininger P. L. 1983; Random subcloning of sonicated DNA: application to shotgun DNA sequence analysis. Analytical Biochemistry 129:216–223
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Downing R. G., Sewankambo N., Serwadda D., Honess R. W., Crawford D., Jarrett R., Griffin B. E. 1987; Isolation of human lymphotropic herpesviruses from Uganda. Lancet ii 390
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fox J. D., Briggs M., Ward P. A., Tedder R. S. 1990; Human herpesvirus 6 in salivary glands. Lancet 336:590–593
    [Google Scholar]
  13. George D. G., Barker W. C., Hunt L. T. 1986; The protein identification resource (PIR). Nucleic Acids Research 14:11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gompels U. A., Craxton M. A., Honess R. W. 1988; Conservation of gene organization in the lymphotropic herpesviruses: herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus. Journal of Virology 69:2819
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Harnett G. B., Farr T. J., Pietroboni G. R., Bucens M. R. 1990; Frequent shedding of human herpesvirus 6 in saliva. Journal of Medical Virology 30:128–130
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Honess R. W., Compels U. A., Barrell B. G., Craxton M., Cameron K. R., Staden R., Chang Y.-N, Hayward G. S. 1989; Deviations from expected frequencies of CpG dinucleotides in herpesvirus DN As may be diagnostic of differences in the states of their latent genomes. Journal of General Virology 70:837–855
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Irving W. L., Cunningham A. L. 1990; Serological diagnosis of infection with human herpesvirus type 6. British Medical Journal 300:156–159
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Josephs S. F., Ablashi D. V., Salahuddin S. Z., Jagodzinski L. L., Wong-Staal F., Gallo R. C. 1991; Identification of the human herpesvirus 6 glycoprotein H and putative large tegument protein genes. Journal of Virology 65:5597–5604
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kondo K., Kondo T., Okuno T., Takahashi M., Tamanishi K. 1991; Latent human herpesvirus 6 infection in human monocytes/ macrophages. Journal of General Virology 72:1401–1408
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kouzarides T., Bankier A. T., Satchwell S. C., Weston K., Tomlinson P., Barrell B. G. 1987; Large-scale rearrangement of homologous regions in the genomes of HCMV and EBV. Virology 165:151–164
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kouzarides T., Bankier A. T., Satchwell S. C., Preddy E., Barrell B. G. 1988; An immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a potential membrane glycoprotein. Virology 165:151–164
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kozak M. 1984; Compilation and analysis of sequences upstream from the translational start site in eukaryotic mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Research 12:857–872
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lawrence G. L., Chee M., Craxton M. A., Compels U. A., Honess R. W., Barrell B. G. 1990; Human herpesvirus 6 is closely related to human cytomegalovirus. Journal of Virology 64:287–299
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Levy J. A., Greenspan D., Ferro F., Lennette E. T. 1990; Frequent isolation of HHV-6 from saliva and high seroprevalence of the virus in the population. Lancet 335:1047–1050
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lindquester G. J., Pellett P. E. 1991; Properties of the human herpesvirus 6 strain Z29 genome: G + C content, length, and presence of variable-length directly repeated terminal sequence elements. Virology 182:102–110
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lopez C., Honess R. W. 1990; Human herpesvirus-6. In Virology 2nd edn pp 2055–2062 Edited by Fields B. N., Knipe D. M. New York: Raven Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lopez C., Pellett P., Stewart J., Goldsmith C., Sanderlin K., Black J., Warfield D., Feorino P. 1988; Characteristics of human herpesvirus-6. Journal of Infectious Diseases 157:1271–1273
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lusso P., Markham P. D., Tschachler E., di Marzo Veronese F., Salahuddin S. Z., Ablashi D. V., Savita P., Krohn K., Gallo R. C. 1988; In vitro cellular tropism of human B-lymphotropic virus (human herpesvirus 6). Journal of Experimental Medicine 167:1659–1670
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McGeoch D. J. 1989; The genomes of the human herpesviruses: contents, relationships and evolution. Annual Review of Microbiology 43:235–265
    [Google Scholar]
  30. McGeoch D. J. 1990; Evolutionary relationships of virion glycoprotein genes in the S regions of alphaherpesvirus genomes. Journal of General Virology 71:2361–2367
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McGeoch D. J., Dalrymple M. A., Davison A. J., Dolan A., Frame M. C., McNab D., Perry L. J., Scott J. E., Taylor P. 1988; The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type l. Journal of General Virology 69:1531–1574
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Martin M. E. D., Thomson B. J., Honess R. W., Craxton M. A., Compels U. A., Liu M.-Y., Littler E., Arrand J. R., Teo I., Jones M. D. 1991a; The genome of human herpesvirus 6: maps of unit-length and concatemeric genomes for nine restriction endonucleases. Journal of General Virology 72:157–168
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Martin M. E. D., Nicholas J., Thomson B. J., Newman C., Honess R. W. 1991b; Identification of a transactivating function mapping to the putative immediate-early locus of human herpesvirus 6. Journal of Virology 65:5381–5390
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Messing J., Vieira J. 1982; A new pair of M13 vectors for selecting either DNA strand of double-digest restriction fragments. Gene 19:269–276
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mocarski E. S., Pereira L., McCormick A. L. 1988; Human cytomegalovirus ICP22, the product of the H WLF1 reading frame, is an early nuclear protein that is released from cells. Journal of General Virology 69:2613–2621
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Morris D. J., Littler E., Arrand J. R., Jordon D., Mallick N. P., Johnson R. W. G. 1989; Human herpesvirus 6 infection in renal transplant recipients. New England Journal of Medicine 320:1560–1561
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Neipel F., Ellinger K., Fleckenstein B. 1991; The unique region of the human herpesvirus 6 genome is essentially collinear with the UL segment of human cytomegalovirus. Journal of General Virology 72:2293–2297
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Niedermann J. C., Liu C.-R, Kaplan M. H., Brown N. A. 1988; Clinical and serological features of human herpesvirus-6 infection in three adults. Lancet ii:817–819
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Okuno T., Takahashi K., Balachandra K., Shiraki K., Yamani-shi K., Takahashi M., Baba K. 1989; Seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 6 infection in normal children and adults. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 27:651–653
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Okuno T., Higashi K., Shiraki K., Yamanishi K., Takahashi M., Kokado Y., Ishibashi M., Takahara S., Sonoda T., Tanaka K., Baba K., Yabuuchi H., Kurata T. 1990; Human herpesvirus 6 infection in renal transplantation. Transplantation 49:519–522
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Pearson W. R., Lipman D. J. 1988; Improved tools for biological sequence comparisons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 85:2444–2448
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Salahuddin S. Z., Ablashi D. V., Markham P. D., Josephs S. F., Sturzenegger S., Kaplan M., Halligan G., Biberfeld P., Wong-Staal F., Kramarsky B., Gallo R. C. 1986; Isolation of a new virus, HBLV, in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Science 234:596–601
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sanger F., Nicklen S., Coulson A. R. 1977; DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 74:5463–5467
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sanger F., Coulson A. R., Barrell B. G., Smith A. J. H., Roe B. A. 1980; Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. Journal of Molecular Biology 143:161–178
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Senapathy P., Shapiro M. B., Harris N. L. 1990; Splice junctions, branch point sites and exons: sequence statistics, identification, and application to genome project. Methods in Enzymology 183:251–278
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Staden R. 1980; A new computer method for the storage and manipulation of DNA gel reading data. Nucleic Acids Research 8:3673–3694
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Staden R. 1982; Automation of the computer handling of gel reading data produced by the shotgun method of DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Research 10:4731–4751
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Staden R. 1990a; An improved sequence handling package that runs on the Apple Macintosh. CABIOS 6:387–393
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Staden R. 1990b; Finding protein coding regions in genomic sequences. Methods in Enzymology 183:163–180
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Steeper T. A., Horwitz C. A., Ablashi D. V., Salahuddin S. Z., Saxinger C., Saltzman R., Schwartz B. 1990; The spectrum of clinical and laboratory findings resulting from human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in patients with mononucleosis-like illnesses not resulting from Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 93:776–783
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Takahashi K., Sonoda S., Kawakami K., Miyata K., Oki T., Nagata T., Okuno T., Yamanishi K. 1988; Human herpesvirus 6 and exanthem subitum. Lancet i 1463
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Takahashi K., Sonoda S., Higashi K., Konodo T., Takahashi H., Takahashi M., Yamanishi K. 1989; Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus. Journal of Virology 63:3161–3164
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Taylor-Wiedeman J., Sissons J. G. P., Borysiewicz L. K., Sinclair J. H. 1991; Monocytes are a major site of persistence of human cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of General Virology 72:2059–2064
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Tedder R. S., Briggs M., Cameron C. H., Honess R. W., Robertson D., Whittle H. 1987; A novel lymphotropic herpesvirus. Lancet ii:390–391
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Teo I. A., Griffin B. E., Jones M. D. 1991; Characterization of the DNA polymerase gene of human herpesvirus 6. Journal of Virology 65:4670–4680
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Thomson B. J., Honess R. W. 1992; The right end of the genome of human herpesvirus 6 U1102 contains a candidate immediate early gene enhancer and a homologue of the human cytomegalovirus US22 gene family. Journal of General Virology 73:1649–1660
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Thomson B. J., Efstathiou S., Honess R. W. 1991; Acquisition of the human adeno-associated virus type-2 rep gene by human herpesvirus type-6. Nature, London 351:78–80
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Ward K. N., Gray J. J., Efstathiou S. 1989; Brief report: primary human herpesvirus 6 infection in a patient following liver transplantation from a seropositive donor. Journal of Medical Virology 28:68–72
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Weston K., Barrell B. G. 1986; Sequence of the short unique region, short repeats and part of the long repeats of human cytomegalovirus. Journal of Molecular Biology 192:177–208
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Yamanishi K., Okuno T., Shiraki K., Takahashi M., Kondo T., Asano Y., Kurata T. 1988; Identification of human herpesvirus-6 as the causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet i1065–1067
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-7-1661
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-7-1661
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error