1887

Abstract

A pairwise comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of 168 bases from 152 wild-type or unique cell culture-adapted strains of hepatitis A virus (HAV) revealed that HAV strains can be differentiated genetically into seven unique genotypes (I to VII). In general, the nucleotide sequence of viruses in different genotypes differs at 15 to 25% of positions within this segment of the genome. Viruses from four of the genotypes (I, II, III and VII) were recovered from cases of hepatitis A in humans, whereas viruses from the other three genotypes (IV, V and VI) were isolated only from simian species developing a hepatitis A-like illness during captivity. Among non-epidemiologically related human HAV strains, 81 were characterized as genotype I, and 19 as genotype III. Within each of these major genotypes, there were two distinct groups (sub-genotypes), which differed in sequence at approximately 7.5% of base positions. Each genotype and sub-genotype has a characteristic amino acid sequence in this region of the polyprotein, with the most divergent genotypes differing at 10 of 56 residues. Strains recovered from some geographical regions belonged to a common (endemic) genotype, whereas strains from other regions belonged to several, probably imported, genotypes. Thus, HAV strains recovered in North America were for the most part closely related at the nucleotide sequence level, whereas in other regions, such as Japan and Western Europe, HAV strains were derived from multiple genotypes or sub-genotypes. These data indicate that patterns of endemic transmission can be differentiated from situations in which infections are imported due to travel.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-6-1365
1992-06-01
2021-10-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/73/6/JV0730061365.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-6-1365&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Baroudy B. M., Ticehurst J. R., Miele T. A., Maizel J. V. Jr, Purcell R. H., Feinstone S. M. 1985; Molecular cloning and partial sequencing of hepatitis A virus cDNA coding for capsid proteins and RNA polymerase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 82:2134–2147
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brown A. E., Jansen R. W., Lemon S. M. 1989; Characterization of a simian hepatitis A virus (HAV): antigenic and genetic comparison with human HAV. Journal of Virology 63:4932–4937
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cohen L. J., Ticehurst J. R., Purcell R. H., Buckler-White A., Baroudy B. M. 1987; Complete nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus: comparison with different strains of hepatitis A virus and other picomaviruses. Journal of Virology 61:50–59
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Crevat D., Crance J. M., Chervinais A. M., Passagot J., Biziagos E., Somme G., Deloince R. 1990; Monoclonal antibodies against an immunodominant and neutralizing epitope on hepatitis A virus antigen. Archives of Virology 113:95–98
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dawson G. J., Decker R. H., Norton D. K., Bryce W. H., Whittingon R. O., Tribby I. I., Mushahwar I. K. 1984; Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis A virus. Journal of Medical Virology 14:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Devereux J., Haeberli P., Smithies O. 1984; A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the Vax. Nucleic Acids Research 12:387–395
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gellis S. S., Stokes J., Brother G. M., Hall W. M., Gillmore H. R., Beyer E., Morrissey R. A. 1945; The use of human immune serum globulin (gamma globulin) in infectious (epidemic) hepatitis in the Mediterranean theatre of operations. Journal of the American Medical Association 128:1062–1063
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gust I. D. 1984; The epidemiology of viral hepatitis. In Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease pp 415–421 Edited by Vyas G. N., Dienstag J. L., Hoofnagle J. H. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gust I. D., Coulepis A. G., Feinstone S. M., Locarnini S. A., Moritsugu Y., Najera R., Siegl G. 1983; Taxonomic classification of hepatitis A virus. Intervirology 20:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jansen R. W., Siegl G., Lemon S. M. 1990; Molecular epidemiology of human hepatitis A virus defined by an antigen-capture/polymerase chain reaction method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 87:2867–2871
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jansen R. W., Siegl G., Lemon S. N. 1991; Molecular epidemiology of human hepatitis A virus (HAV). In Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease pp 58–62 Edited by Hollinger B. N., Lemon S. M., Margolis H. S. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kew O. M., Nottay B. K., Obijeski J. F. 1984; Applications of oligonucleotide fingerprinting to the identification of viruses. In Methods in Virology vol 8 pp 41–84 Edited by Maramorosch K., Koprowski H. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Khanna B., Spelbring J. E., Innis B. L., Robertson B. H. 1991; Characterization of a genetic variant of human hepatitis A virus. Journal of Medical Virology 36:118–124
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lemon S. M., Binn L. N. 1983; Antigenic relatedness of two strains of hepatitis A virus determined by cross-neutralization. Infection and Immunity 42:418–420
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Linemeyer D. L., Menke J. G., Martin-Gallarado A., Hughes J. V., Young A., Mitra S. W. 1985; Molecular cloning and partial sequencing of hepatitis A viral cDNA. Journal of Virology 54:247–255
    [Google Scholar]
  16. MacGregor A., Kornitschuk M., Hurrell J. G. R., Lehmann N.L, Coulepis A. G., Locarnini S. A., Gust I. D. 1983; Monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis A virus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 18:1237–1243
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Melnick J. L. 1982; Classification of hepatitis A virus as enterovirus type 72 and of hepatitis B virus as hepadnavirus type I. Intervirology 18:105–106
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Minor P. D. 1991; Picomaviridae. In Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Fifth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Archives of Virology, Suppiementum 2 pp 320–326 Edited by Francki R. I. B., Fauquet C. M., Knudson D. L., Brown F. Wien: Springer Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nainan O. V., Margolis H. S., Robertson B. H., Balayan M., Brinton M. A. 1991; Sequence analysis of a new hepatitis A virus naturally infecting cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Journal of General Virology 72:1685–1689
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Najarian R. D., Caput D., Gee W., Potter S. J., Renard A., Merryweather J., Nest G. V., Dina D. 1985; Primary structure and gene organization of human hepatitis A virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 82:2627–2631
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Neefe J. R., Gellis S. S., Stokes J. 1946; Homologous serum hepatitis and infectious (epidemic) hepatitis. Journal of Medical Virology 1:3–22
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nottay B. K., Kew O. M., Hatch M. H., Heyward J. T., Obijeski J. F. 1981; Molecular variation of type 1 vaccine-related and wild polioviruses during replication in humans. Virology 108:405–423
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ovchinnikov I. A., Sverdlov E. D., Tsarev S. A., Arsenian S. G., Rokhlina T. O., Chizhikov V. E., Petrov N. A., Prikhod’ko G. G., Blinov V. M., Basilenko S. K., Sandakhchibv L. S., Kusov I. I., Grabko V. I, Fleer G. P., Balayan M. S., Drozdov S. G. 1985; Sequence of 3372 nucleotide units of RNA of the hepatitis A virus, coding_the capsids VP4-VP1 and some nonstructural proteins. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 285:1014–1018
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Palmenberg A. C. 1989; Sequence alignments of picomaviral capsid proteins. In Molecular Aspects of Picomaviral Infection and Detection pp 211–241 Edited by Semler B. L., Ehrenfeld E. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Paul A. V., Tada H., von der Helm K., Wissel T., Kiehn R., Wimmer E., Deinhardt F. 1987; The entire nucleotide sequence of the genome of human hepatitis A virus (isolate MBB). Virus Research 8:153–171
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ping L.-H., Jansen R. W., Stapleton J. T., Cohen J. I., Lemon S. M. 1988; Identification of an immunodominant antigenic site involving the capsid protein VP3 of hepatitis A virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 85:8281–8285
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Provost P. J., Ittensohn O. L., Villarejos V. M., Arguedas J. A., Hilleman M. R. 1973; Etiologic relationship of marmoset-propagated CR326 hepatitis A to hepatitis in man. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology ami Medicine 142:1257–1267
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rakela J., Fay O. H., Stevenson K., Gordon I., Mosley J. W. 1976; Similarities of two hepatitis A virus strains. WHO Bulletin 54:561–564
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rico-Hesse R., Pallansch M. A., Nottay B. K., Kew O. M. 1987; Geographic distribution of wild poliovirus type 1 genotypes. Virology 160:311–322
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Robertson B. H., Khanna B., Nainan O. V., Margolis H. S. 1991a; Epidemiologic patterns of wild-type hepatitis A virus determined by genetic variation. Journal of Infectious Diseases 163:286–292
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Robertson B. H., Khanna B., Nainan O. V., Margolis H. S. 1991b; Genetic variation of wild-type hepatitis A isolates. In Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease pp 54–58 Edited by Hollinger B. N., Lemon S. M., Margolis H. S. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rueckert R. R., Wimmer E. 1984; Systematic nomenclature of picomavirus proteins. Journal of Virology 50:957–959
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ticehurst J., Cohen J. L., Feinstone S. M., Purcell R. H., Jansen R. W., Lemon S. M. 1989; Replication of hepatitis A virus: new ideas from studies with cloned cDNA. In Molecular Aspects of Picomaviral Infection and Detection pp 27–50 Edited by Semler B. L., Ehrenfeld E. Washington, D. C.: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tsarev S. A., Emerson S. U., Balayan M. S., Ticehurst J., Purcell R. H. 1991; Simian hepatitis A virus (HAV) strain AGM-27: comparison of genome structure and growth in cell culture with other HAV strains. Journal of General Virology 72:1677–1683
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Widell A., Hansson B. G., Moestrup T., Nordenfeldt E. 1983; Increased occurrence of hepatitis A with cyclic outbreaks among drug addicts in a Swedish community. Infection 11:198–200
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Winship P. 1989; An improved method for directly sequencing PCR amplified material using dimethyl sulphoxide. Nucleic Acids Research 17:1266
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-6-1365
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-6-1365
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error