1887

Abstract

The protein predicted to be encoded by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gene 61 exhibits limited amino acid sequence similarity to the herpes simplex virus type 1 nuclear phosphoprotein Vmw110, which functions as a transcriptional activator. The gene 61 protein was expressed in its entirety, or as an amino- or carboxy-terminal fragment in and vaccinia virus recombinants, and monospecific rabbit antisera were raised against an fusion between -galactosidase and the majority of the gene 61 protein. Use of the antisera showed that the gene 61 protein is present in VZV-infected cell nuclei as a heterogeneous phosphoprotein of 62K to 65K. Phosphorylation occurs in the amino- and, to a lesser extent, carboxy-terminal portions of the protein. The carboxy-terminal region directs transport of the protein to the nucleus, whereas the amino-terminal region, which contains a potential zinc-binding domain, is responsible for a punctate distribution. Preliminary mapping data indicated that gene 61 is transcribed as a 1.8 kb mRNA which initiates about 65 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon, at a position located appropriately with respect to potential regulatory elements.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-3-521
1992-03-01
2022-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/73/3/JV0730030521.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-3-521&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ackermann M., Braun D. K., Pereira L., Roizman B. 1984; Characterization of herpes simplex type 1 proteins 0, 4 and 27 with monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Virology 52:108–118
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amman E., Brosius J. 1985; “ATG vectors” for regulated high-level expression of cloned genes in Escherichia coli . Gene 40:183–190
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cabirac G. F., Mahalingham R., Wellish M., Gilden D. H. 1990; Trans-activation of viral tk promoters by proteins encoded by varicella-zoster virus open reading frames 61 and 62. Virus Research 15:57–68
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cheung A. K. 1991; Cloning the latency gene and the early protein 0 gene of pseudorabies virus. Journal of Virology 65:5260–5271
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chomczynski P., Sacchi N. 1987; Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Analytical Biochemistry 162:156–159
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Davison A. J., Moss B. 1989; Structure of vaccinia virus early promoters. Journal of Molecular Biology 210:749–769
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Davison A. J., Moss B. 1990; New vaccinia virus recombination plasmids incorporating a synthetic late promoter for high level expression of foreign proteins. Nucleic Acids Research 18:4285–4286
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davison A. J., Scott J. E. 1983; Molecular cloning of the varicella-zoster virus genome and derivation of six restriction endonuclease maps. Journal of General Virology 64:1811–1814
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Davison A. J., Scott J. E. 1985; DNA sequence of the major inverted repeat in the varicella-zoster virus genome. Journal of General Virology 66:207–220
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Davison A. J., Scott J. E. 1986; The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus. Journal of General Virology 67:1759–1816
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Disney G. H., Everett R. D. 1990; A herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant with both copies of the Vmwl75 coding sequences replaced by the homologous varicella-zoster virus open reading frame. Journal of General Virology 71:2681–2689
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dumas A. M., Geelen J. L. M. C., Weststrate M. W., Wertheim P., van der Noordaa J. 1981; XbaI, PstI and BglII restriction endonuclease maps of the two orientations of the varicella-zoster virus genome. Journal of Virology 39:390–400
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Everett R. D. 1987; The regulation of transcription of viral and cellular genes by herpesvirus immediate-early gene products. Anticancer Research 7:589–604
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Everett R. D. 1988; Analysis of the functional domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early polypeptide Vmw110. Journal of Molecular Biology 202:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Everett R. D., Preston C. M., Stow N. D. 1991; Functional and genetic analysis of the role of Vmw110 in herpes simplex virus replication. In Herpesvirus Transcription and its Regulation pp 49–76 Edited by Wagner E. K. Boca Raton: CRC Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Felser J. M., Kinchington P. R., Inchauspe G., Straus S. E., Ostrove J. M. 1988; Cell lines containing varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 62 and expressing the “IE” 175 protein complement ICP4 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of Virology 62:2076–2082
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fenwick M. L., McMenamin M. 1984; Synthesis of α (immediateearly) proteins in Vero cells infected with pseudorabies virus. Journal of General Virology 65:1449–1456
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Forghani B., Mahalingham R., Vafai A., Hurst J. W., Dupuis K. W. 1990; Monoclonal antibody to immediate early protein encoded by varicella-zoster virus gene 62. Virus Research 16:195–210
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Frame M. C., Purves F. C., McGeoch D. J., Marsden H. S., Leader D. P. 1987; Identification of the herpes simplex virus protein kinase as the product of viral gene US3. Journal of General Virology 68:2699–2704
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Freemont P. S., Hanson I. M., Trowsdale J. 1991; A novel cysteine-rich sequence motif. Cell 64:483–484
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gelman I. H., Silverstein S. 1986; Coordinate regulation of herpes simplex virus gene expression is mediated by the functional interaction of two immediate early gene products. Journal of Molecular Biology 191:395–409
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gray W. L., Bauman R. P., Robertson A. T., Caughman G. B., O’Callaghan D. J., Staczek J. 1987; Regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression: characterization of immediate early, early and late transcription. Virology 158:79–87
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Inchauspe G., Nagpal S., Ostrove J. M. 1989; Mapping of two varicella-zoster virus-encoded genes that activate the expression of viral early and late genes. Virology 173:700–709
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lopetegui P., Campo-Vera H., Yamanishi K. 1985; Varicellazoster virus (VZV)-specific polypeptides detected in cells treated with metabolic inhibitors. Microbiology and Immunology 29:569–575
    [Google Scholar]
  25. McGeoch D. J., Dolan A., Donald S., Brauer H. K. 1986; Complete DNA sequence of the short repeat region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of Molecular Biology 181:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  26. McGeoch D. J., Dalrymple M. A., Davison A. J., Dolan A., Frame M. C., McNab D., Perry L. J., Scott J. E., Taylor P. 1988; The complete DNA sequence of the long unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of General Virology 69:1531–1574
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mackem S., Roizman B. 1982; Differentiation between a promoter and regulator regions of herpes simplex virus 1: the functional domains and significance of a movable regulator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 79:4917–4921
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Murphy M., Schenk P., Lankinen H. M., Cross A. M., Taylor P., Owsianka A., Hope R. G., Ludwig H., Marsden H. S. 1989; Mapping of epitopes on the 65K DNA-binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of General Virology 70:2357–2364
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pereira L., Wolff M. H., Fenwick M. L., Roizman B. 1977; Regulation of herpesvirus macromolecular synthesis. V. Properties of polypeptides made in HSV-1 and HSV-2 infected cells. Virology 77:733–749
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Perry L. J., Rixon F. J., Everett R. D., Frame M. C., McGeoch D. J. 1986; Characterization of the IE110 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. Journal of General Virology 67:2365–2380
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Piette J., Kryszke M.-H., Yaniv M. 1985; Specific interaction of cellular factors with the B enhancer of polyoma virus. EMBO Journal 4:2675–2685
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Preston V. G., Davison A. J., Marsden H. S., Timbury M. C., Subak-Sharpe J. H., Wilkie N. M. 1978; Recombinants between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: analyses of genome structures and expression of immediate early polypeptides. Journal of Virology 28:499–517
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Randall R. E., Dinwoodie N. 1986; Intranuclear localization of herpes simplex virus immediate-early and delayed-early proteins: evidence that ICP 4 is associated with progeny virus DNA. Journal of General Virology 67:2163–2177
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Reinhold W. C., Straus S. E., Ostrove J. M. 1988; Directionality and further mapping of varicella-zoster virus transcripts. Virus Research 9:249–261
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Rüther U., Müller-Hill B. 1983; Easy identification of cDNA clones. EMBO Journal 2:1791–1794
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual 2nd edn New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sandri-Goldin R. M. 1991; Analysis of the regulatory activities of the HSV-la protein ICP27. In Herpesvirus Transcription and its Regulation pp 77–103 Edited by Wagner E. K. Boca Raton: CRC Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sears A. E., Halliburton I. W., Meignier B., Silver S., Roizman B. 1985; Herpes simplex virus 1 mutant deleted in the α 22 gene: growth and gene expression in permissive and restrictive cells and establishment of latency in mice. Journal of Virology 55:338–346
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shiraki K., Hyman R. W. 1987; The immediate early proteins of varicella-zoster virus. Virology 156:423–426
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Smith C. L., Debouck C., Rosenberg M., Culp J. S. 1989; Phosphorylation of serine residue 89 of human adenovirus El A proteins is responsible for their characteristic electrophoretic mobility shifts, and its mutation affects biological function. Journal of Virology 63:1569–1577
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Steers E., Cuatrecasas P., Pollard H. P. 1971; The purification of β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli by affinity chromatography. Journal of Biological Chemistry 246:196–200
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stow N. D., Stow E. C. 1986; Isolation and characterization of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant containing a deletion within the gene encoding the immediate-early polypeptide Vmw110. Journal of General Virology 67:2571–2585
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-3-521
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-73-3-521
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error