We have used the human myelomonocytic cell line HL-60 as a model system to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affects differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. HL-60 cells were infected with three HIV-1 isolates (IIIB, NL4-3 and PM213). HIV-1 antigen expression and cytopathicity in HL-60 cells infected with each of the three isolates was delayed by approximately 15 days as compared to those in the prototypic T cell line, H9. Chronically infected HL-60 cells and clonal lines derived from them were treated with dimethyl formamide (DMF) and induced to differentiate into granulocytes. Approximately the same percentage of these cells as of DMF-treated, uninfected HL-60 cells differentiated. Superoxide production by infected and uninfected DMF-induced cells was similar. Likewise, approximately the same percentage of cells in infected and uninfected cultures became adherent and were positive for non-specific esterase when monocytic differentiation was induced. The data demonstrate that HL-60 cells infected with HIV-1 are capable of morphological and functional granulocytic and monocytic differentiation.


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