Recombinant vaccinia viruses have been proposed as live virus vectors in man to generate both specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The generation of such responses following revaccination was followed in five normal volunteers. All five showed elevated (35- to 6500-fold) vaccina virus-specific IgG by 14 days post-vaccination, following uncomplicated vaccination by dermal scarification. Four of the five had elevated total serum immunoglobulins with increased spontaneous and pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin production. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were not detected either directly, from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or following secondary stimulation, even by limiting dilution analysis. These studies would suggest that vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses may provide an insufficient stimulus to the generation of CTLs .


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