The aberrant replication of the multiple-enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) in the cell line IPLB-Ld652Y was used as a model system for the investigation of factors regulating baculovirus host specificity. A previous study of this system indicates that viral gene expression in infected cells is extremely attenuated and subsequently all cellular and viral protein synthesis is inhibited. In the present study, infection of IPLB-Ld652Y cells with AcMNPV photochemically inactivated resulted in a rapid reduction in cell mitotic indices and cell growth, as well as inducing a series of distinct morphological changes in these cells. At the molecular level, infection with inactivated virus, followed by pulse labelling with [H]thymidine, resulted in a rapid [0 to 2 h post-infection (p.i.)] and permanent inhibition of host cellular DNA synthesis. Assays of cellular DNA polymerases in isolated IPLB-Ld652Y nuclei confirmed the reduction in cellular DNA synthesis observed in intact cells and indicated an initial (0 to 2 h p.i.) reduction in the activity of aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases. Activity of all cellular DNA polymerases was inhibited at later times p.i. Host cell protein synthesis was completely inhibited after 48 h p.i. Treatment of inactivated virus and virus-infected cells with various chemical and physical factors (i.e. pH and temperature) or lysosomotropic agents revealed that virus entry into cells and fusion of endocytic vesicles (containing virus) with lysosomes were essential for suppression of cellular macromolecular synthesis. The possible involvement of structural components of the AcMNPV virion in these effects is discussed.


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