Immunization of mice with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the glycoproteins B or D of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induced humoral antibody as well as multiple aspects of HSV-1-specific T lymphocyte-mediated responses. However, vaccinated mice were not completely resistant to HSV-1 challenge and were unable to eliminate an epithelial infection rapidly. Evidence is presented which indicates that immunization with either vaccinia virus recombinant, while inducing the necessary protective populations of CD4 T lymphocytes, fails to induce the complementing CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes necessary for high levels of protection against a primary HSV-1 infection. These findings are discussed with relevance to the future development of anti-HSV vaccines.


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