1887

Abstract

Summary

Chicken spleen cells latently infected with Marek’s disease virus were cultured with and without conditioned medium (CM) obtained from concanavalin A-stimulated chicken spleen cell cultures. The expression of viral internal antigen(s) (VIA), which is usually associated with cultivation, was prevented or markedly reduced by the CM. This effect required the continued presence of CM, since its removal after 48 h resulted in the subsequent appearance of VIA. Although CM contains both gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2, our studies suggest that the ‘latency-maintaining activity’ (LMF) may not be associated with either of these products of stimulated lymphocytes. However, IFN-γ may also have had some suppressive effect. LMF appears to have an greater than 10000 and to be inactivated by heating to 90 °C for 5 min.

Keyword(s): herpesvirus , latency and MDV
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2809
1988-11-01
2022-01-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/69/11/JV0690112809.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2809&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. BESEDOVSKY H., DEL REY A., SORKIN E., DINARELLO C. A. 1986; Immunoregulatory feedback between interleukin-1 and glucocorticoid hormones. Science 233:652–664
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BUSCAGLIA C, CALNEK B. W., SCHAT K. A. 1988; Effect of immunocompetence on the establishment and maintenance of latency with Marek’s disease herpesvirus. Journal of General Virology 69:1067–1077
    [Google Scholar]
  3. CALNEK B. W. 1986; Marek’s disease - a model for herpesvirus oncology. CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology 12:293–320
    [Google Scholar]
  4. CALNEK B. W., SHEK W. R., SCHAT K. A. 1981; Latent infections with Marek’s disease virus and turkey herpesvirus. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66:585–590
    [Google Scholar]
  5. CALNEK B. W., SCHAT K. A., SHEK W. R., CHEN C-L. H. 1982; In vitro infection of lymphocytes with Marek’s disease virus. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 69:709–713
    [Google Scholar]
  6. CALNEK B. W., SCHAT K. A., ROSS L. J. N., SHEK W. R., CHEN C-L. H. 1984; Further characterization of Marek’s disease virus-infected lymphocytes. I. In vivo infection. International Journal of Cancer 33:389–398
    [Google Scholar]
  7. COCKLEY K. D., RAPP F. 1986; Analysis of long-term human cytomegalovirus latency in vitro. Intervirology 26:129–139
    [Google Scholar]
  8. COHEN D. J., LOERTSCHER R., RUBIN M. F., TILNEY N. L., CARPENTER C. B., STROM T. B. 1984; Cyclosporine: a new immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation. Annals of Internal Medicine 101:667–682
    [Google Scholar]
  9. COLE R. K. 1966; Hereditary hypothyroidism in the domestic fowl. Genetics 53:1021–1033
    [Google Scholar]
  10. CUNNINGHAM A. L., MERIGAN T. C. 1984; Leu-3+ T cells produce y-interferon in patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Journal of Immunology 132:197–202
    [Google Scholar]
  11. DANIELESCU G., BOTNARIUC I., CAJAL N. 1985; Investigation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity aspects in mice with experimental latent herpes infection. Revue Roumaine de Médecine Virologie 36:85–94
    [Google Scholar]
  12. FREDERICKSEN T. L., SHARMA J. M. 1986; Purification of avian lymphokines TCGF and IFN from conditioned medium by hydrophobic chromatography. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Immunology. Toronto, Canada369
    [Google Scholar]
  13. FREDERICKSEN T. L., SHARMA J. M. 1987 Purification of avian T cell growth factor and immune interferon using gel filtration high resolution chromatography. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Avian Immunology 238145–256 Edited by Weber W. T., Ewert D. L. New York: Alan R. Liss;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. GREEN J. A., YEH T., OVERALL J. C JR. 1981; Sequential production of IFN-γ and immune-specific IFN-γ by human mononuclear leukocytes exposed to herpes simplex virus. Journal of Immunology 127:1192–1196
    [Google Scholar]
  15. HALL N. R., GOLDSTEIN A. L. 1982 Endocrine regulation of host immunity. The role of steroids and thymosin. Immune Modulation Agents and Their Mechanisms, Immunology Series 25533–563 Edited by Fenichel R. L., Chirigos M. A. New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. HESS A. D., COLOMBANI P. M., ESA A. H. 1986; Cyclosporine and the immune response: basic aspects. CRC Critical Reviews in Immunology 6:123–149
    [Google Scholar]
  17. IANNELLO D., TAYLOR M. W., FIFE K. H., CHEN L. 1987; Spontaneous and induced interferon production by peripheral blood leucocytes from control population and patients with herpes genitalis. Journal of Medical Virology 22:25–34
    [Google Scholar]
  18. IWASAKA T., SHERIDAN J. F., AURELIAN L. 1983; Immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2: recurrent lesions are associated with the induction of suppressor cells and soluble suppressor factors. Infection and Immunity 42:955–964
    [Google Scholar]
  19. KRÖMER G., SCHAUENSTEIN K., WICK G. 1984; Avian lymphokines: an improved method for chicken IL-2 production and assay. A Con A-erythrocyte complex induces higher T cell proliferation and IL-2 production than does free mitogen. Journal of Immunological Methods 73:273–281
    [Google Scholar]
  20. NAHMIAS A. J., ROIZMAN B. 1973; Medical progress. Infection with herpes-simplex viruses 1 and 2 (first of three parts). New England Journal of Medicine 289:667–674
    [Google Scholar]
  21. NELSON P. W. 1984; Cyclosporine. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 159:297–308
    [Google Scholar]
  22. NILHEDEN E., JEANSSON S., VAHLNE A. 1985; Amplification of herpes simplex virus resistance in mouse neuroblastoma (C1300) cells. Archives of Virology 83:269–283
    [Google Scholar]
  23. O’REILLY R. J., CHIBBARO A., ANGER E., LOPEZ C. 1977; Cell-mediated immune responses in patients with recurrent herpes simplex infections. II. Infection-associated deficiency of lymphokine production in patients with recurrent herpes labialis or herpes progenitalis. Journal of Immunology 118:1095–1102
    [Google Scholar]
  24. PAZIN G. J., ARMSTRONG J. A., LAM M. T., TARR G. C, JANNETTA P. J., HO M. 1979; Prevention of reactivated herpes simplex infection by human leuckocyte interferon after operation on the trigeminal root. New England Journal of Medicine 301:225–230
    [Google Scholar]
  25. PUSZTAI R., TARÓDI B., BÉLÁDA I. 1986; Production and characterization of interferon induced in chicken leukocytes by concanavalin A. Acta virologica 30:131–136
    [Google Scholar]
  26. RAPP F. 1984; Experimental studies of latency in vitro by herpes simplex viruses. Progress in Medical Virology 30:29–43
    [Google Scholar]
  27. RASMUSSEN L., MERIGAN T. C. 1978; Role of T lymphocytes in cellular immune responses during herpes simplex virus infection in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 75:3957–3961
    [Google Scholar]
  28. RHEINBABEN F. V., SCHNEWEIS K. E. 1986; Inhibition of the in vitro-reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection in spinal ganglia: comparison of various immune factors. Brief report. Archives of Virology 87:315–319
    [Google Scholar]
  29. ROSENBERG O. L., SNYDERMAN R., NOTKINS A. L. 1974; Production of chemotactic factor and lymphotoxin by human leukocytes stimulated with herpes simplex virus. Infection and Immunity 10:111–115
    [Google Scholar]
  30. SCHAT K. A., CALNEK B. W., FABRICANT F. 1982; Characterization of two highly oncogenic strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathology 11:593–605
    [Google Scholar]
  31. SCHAT K. A., CALNEK B. W., WEINSTOCK D. 1986; Cultivation and characterization of avian lymphocytes with natural killer cell activity. Avian Pathology 15:539–556
    [Google Scholar]
  32. SCHAUENSTEIN K., GLOGERSON A., WICK G. 1982; Avian lymphokines. 1. Thymic cell growth factor in supernatants of mitogen stimulated chicken spleen cells. Developments in Comparative Immunology 6:533–540
    [Google Scholar]
  33. SCHECK A. C, WIGDAHL B., DE CLERCQ E., RAPP F. 1986; Prolonged herpes simplex virus latency in vitro after treatment of infected cells with acyclovir and human leukocyte interferon. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 29:589–593
    [Google Scholar]
  34. SCHNETZLER M., OOMMEN A., NOWAK J. S., FRANKLIN R. M. 1983; Characterization of chicken T cell growth factor. European Journal of Immunology 13:560–566
    [Google Scholar]
  35. SHERIDAN J. F., DONNENBERG A. D., AURELIAN L., ELPERN D. J. 1982; Immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. IV. Impaired lymphokine production during recrudescence correlates with an imbalance in T lymphocyte subsets. Journal of Immunology 129:326–331
    [Google Scholar]
  36. SHERIDAN J. F., BECK M., AURELIAN L., RADOWSKY M. 1985; Immunity to herpes simplex virus: virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity. Journal of Infectious Diseases 152:449–456
    [Google Scholar]
  37. SHIRAKI K., RAPP F. 1986; Establishment of herpes simplex virus latency in vitro with cycloheximide. Journal of General Virology 67:2497–2500
    [Google Scholar]
  38. SNEDECOR G. W., COCHRAN W. G. 1980 Statistical Methods, 7th edn. Ames: Iowa State University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. WAGNER R. R. 1960; Viral interference. Some considerations of basic mechanisms and their potential relationship to host resistance. Bacterial Reviews 24:151–166
    [Google Scholar]
  40. WEILER H., VON BÜLOW V. 1986; Development of optimal conditions for lymphokine production by chicken lymphocytes. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 14:257–267
    [Google Scholar]
  41. WEILER H., VON BÜLOW V. 1987; Detection of different macrophage-activating factor and interferon activities in supernatants of chicken lymphocyte cultures. Avian Pathology 16:439–452
    [Google Scholar]
  42. WEINSTOCK D., SCHAT K. A. 1987 Virus specific syngeneic killing of reticuloendotheliosis virus transformed cell line target cells by spleen cells. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Avian Immunology 238253–263 Edited by Weber W. T., Ewert D. L. New York: Alan R. Liss;
    [Google Scholar]
  43. WIGDAHL B. L., SCHECK A. C, DE CLERCQ E., RAPP F. 1982; High efficiency latency and activation of herpes simplex virus in human cells. Science 217:1145–1146
    [Google Scholar]
  44. WIGDAHL B., SMITH C. A., TRAGLIA H. M., RAPP F. 1984; Herpes simplex virus latency in isolated human neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 81:6217–6221
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2809
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2809
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error