1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

The effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) on host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaginal infection in the B6C3F1 mouse was determined. Animals were given Delta-9-THC or vehicle on days -1 to 2, or cyclophosphamide on day -1 or on days -1 to 2. HSV-2 was introduced intravaginally on day 0. Host resistance to virus infection was assessed by comparing frequency and severity of lesions, virus shedding and mortalities. Replicate groups of animals were bled on days 5, 8, 10, 14 and 21 post-viral inoculation to allow for screening for viraemia and for definition of the effect of Delta-9-THC on the humoral response. Animals were also employed for determination of delayed hypersensitivity responses (DHR). Virus-infected animals treated with 100 mg/kg Delta-9-THC exhibited greater severity of herpes genitalis, higher mortalities and higher mean titres of virus shed from the vagina. Suppression of the humoral response to HSV-2 occurred in animals treated with this dose of drug when compared to virus-infected vehicle controls. A delay in the onset of the DHR to HSV-2 was observed in animals receiving 100 mg/kg Delta-9-THC when compared with those receiving vehicle. These results indicate that Delta-9-THC decreases host resistance to HSV-2 vaginal infection in the B6C3F1 mouse. This decreased resistance is associated with suppression of the immune response to primary infection with HSV-2.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-66-12-2539
1985-12-01
2021-10-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/66/12/JV0660122539.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-66-12-2539&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Becker Y., Schtram Y., Hadar J., Ben-hur T., Barasofsky A., Asher Y., Tabor E., Scemama A., Gilden D. H. 1984; Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene controls virus pathogenesis and latency in the nervous system. In Mechanism of Viral Pathogenesis pp 293–308 Edited by Kohn A., Fuchs B. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blevins R. D., Regan J. D. 1976; Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: effect on macromolecular synthesis in human and other mammalian cells. Archives of Toxicology 35:127–135
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cabral G. A., Mishkin E. M., Holsapple M. P. 1985; Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol decreases host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infection in the guinea pig. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Pharmacology: 3rd Satellite Symposium on Cannabis Oxford: IRL Press; (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cushman P., Khurana R. 1976; Marijuana and T-lymphocyte rosettes. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19:310–317
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fisher R. A. 1950 Statistical Methods of Research Workers 11 edn London: Oliver & Boyd;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gupta G., Grieco M., Cushman P. 1974; Impairment of rosette forming T-lymphocytes in chronic marijuana users. New England Journal of Medicine 291:874–876
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hamelin C., Chagnon A., Farwel M. 1984; Identification of atypical strains of herpes simplex virus using a simplified DNA finger printing method. Microbiology and Immunology 28:723–729
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Klaassen C. D., Doull J. 1980; Evaluation of safety. Toxicologic evaluation. In Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons pp 11–27 Edited by Doull J., Klaassen C. D., Amdur M. O. New York: MacMillen;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Klykken P. C., Smith S. H., Levy J. A., Razdan R., Munson A. E. 1977; Immunosuppressive effects of 8, 9-epoxyhydrocannabinoi (EHHC). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 201:573–579
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Mckendall R. R., Klaassen T., Baringer J. R. 1979; Host defenses in herpes simplex infections of the nervous system: effect of antibody on disease and viral spread. Infection and Immunity 23:305–311
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Mann P. E. G., Cohen A. B., Finley T. N., Ladman A. J. 1971; Alveolar macrophages: structural and functional differences between non-smokers and smokers of marijuana and tobacco. Laboratory Investigation 25:111–120
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Morahan P. S., Breinig M. C., Mcgeorge M. B. 1977; Immune responses to vaginal or systemic infection of BALB/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Journal of Immunology 119:2030–2036
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Morahan P. S., Klykken P. C., Smith S. H., Harris L. S., Munson A. E. 1979; Effects of cannabinoids on host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes and herpes simplex virus. Infection and Immunity 23:670–674
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Morahan P. S., Thomson T. A., Kohl S., Murray B. K. 1981; Immune responses to labial infection of BALB/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 1. Infection and Immunity 32:180–187
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Munson A. E., Fehr K. O. 1983; Immunological effects of cannabinoids. In Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use Working Papers for the ARS-WHO Scientific Meeting, Toronto, 1981 Addiction Research In Toronto; pp 258–353 Edited by Fehr K. O., Kalant H.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nahas G. G., Sucia-Foca N., Armand S. P., Morishima A. 1974; Inhibition of cellular mediated immunity in marijuana smokers. Science 183:419–420
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pringle H. L., Bradley S. G. 1978; Mechanism of action of immunosuppressive cannabinoids. Federation Proceedings 37:1541
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rapp F. 1963; Variants of herpes simplex virus: isolation, characterization and factors influencing plaque formation. Journal of Bacteriology 86:985–991
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Schwartzfarb L., Needle N., Chavez-Chase M. 1974; Dose related inhibition of leukocyte migration by marijuana and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 14:35–41
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Smith S. H., Harris L. S., Uwaydah I. M., Munson A. E. 1978; Structural activity relationships of natural and synthetic cannabinoids in suppression of humoral and cell mediated immunity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 207:165–170
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Tennant F. S. JR, Groesbeck C. J. 1972; Psychiatric effects of hashish. Archives of General Psychiatry 27:133–136
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Zar J. H. 1974 Biostatistical Analysis Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-66-12-2539
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-66-12-2539
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error