1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

Twenty recombinant influenza virus strains bearing HSw1N1, H1N1 or H3N2 surface antigens, together with their respective wild-type or laboratory-propagated parent viruses, were inoculated into 2 day-old infant rats and their replication in the turbinates and lungs of these animals observed over a period of 5 days. In addition, the ability of each of the recombinant and parent viruses to enhance a subsequent infection of these infant rats by type b was determined. The results showed that both parent and recombinant viruses replicated less well in the lungs than in the turbinates of infant rats, but the titres in both tissues were generally lower for the recombinant strains. The capacity of the majority of the recombinant influenza viruses to promote bacterial infection of the infant rats, as determined by the incidence of bacteraemia and meningitis, was also markedly less than that of their parent viruses. A correlation between virulence for man and both the replication in infant rat turbinates and the ability to enhance infection, was established for the virus strains studied. The data are discussed in relationship to the value of the infant rat- system as a laboratory marker for the determination of the virulence of influenza virus strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-49-2-343
1980-08-01
2021-10-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/49/2/JV0490020343.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-49-2-343&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abou-Donia H., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1980; Growth of influenza A viruses in hamsters. Archives of Virology (in the press)
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Almond J. W. 1977; A single gene determines the host range of influenza. Nature, London 270:617–18
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bean W. J., Webster R. G. 1978; Phenotypic properties associated with influenza genome segments. In Negative Strand Viruses and the Host Cell pp 685–692 Edited by Mahy B. W. J., Barry R. D. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beare A. S. 1969; Laboratory characteristics of attenuated influenza A viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 41:595–598
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beare A. S., Hall T. S. 1971; Recombinant influenza A viruses as live vaccines for man. Lancet 11:1271–1273
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Beare A. S., Bynoe M. L., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1968; Investigation into the attentuation of influenza viruses by serial passage. British Medical Journal 4:482–484
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beare A. S., Schild G. C., Craig J. W. 1975; Trials in man with live recombinants made from A/PR/8/34 (HoN1) and wild H3N2 influenza viruses. Lancet 11:729–734
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Berendt R. F., Hall W. C. 1977; Reaction of squirrel monkeys to intratracheal inoculation with influenza A/New Jersey/76 (swine) virus. Infection and Immunity 16:476–479
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Boudreault A. 1979; Live influenza vaccine: screening of attentuated virus strains by a 50% ciliary activity inhibition test in organ cultures of ferret trachea. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 25:279–284
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Campbell D., Sweet C., Smith H. 1979; Comparison of virulence of influenza virus recombinants in ferrets in relation to their behaviour in man and their genetic constitution. Journal of General Virology 44:37–44
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Couch R. B., Douglas R. G. Jun, Fedson D. S., Kasel J. A. 1971; Correlated studies of a recombinant influenza virus vaccine. III. Protection against experimental influenza in man. Journal of Infectious Diseases 124:473–480
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fazekas De St., Groth S., Witchell S. J., Lafferty K. J. 1958; An improved assay for neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses. Journal of Hygiene 56:415–426
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fenton R. J., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1977; Differential response of ferrets to infection with virulent and avirulent influenza viruses: a possible marker of attenuation. Archives of Virology 55:55–66
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Florent G., Lobmann M., Beare A. S., Zygraich N. 1977; RNA’s of influenza A recombinant viruses derived from parents of known virulence for man. Archives of Virology 54:19–28
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Freestone D. S., Hamilton-Smith S., Schild G. C., Buckland R., Chinn S., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1972; Antibody responses and resistance to challenge in volunteers vaccinated with live, attenuated, detergent-split and oil-adjuvant A2/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) influenza vaccines. Journal of Hygiene 70:531–543
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hara K., Beare A. S., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1973; Growth and pathogenicity of influenza viruses in organ cultures of ciliated epithelium. Archiv für die’gesamte Virusforschung 44:227–236
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jennings R., Clark A., Oxford J. S., Hockley D. J., Potter C. W. 1978; Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of whole and ether-tween split influenza A virus vaccines in volunteers. Journal of Infectious Diseases 138:577–586
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lobmann M., Delem A., Peetermans J., Huygelen C. 1976; Laboratory characteristics of an attenuated influenza type A (H3N2) virus (‘Alice’ strain). Journal of Hygiene 77:181–188
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Maassab H. F., Francis T. Jun, Davenport F. M., Hennessy A. V., Minuse E., Anderson G. 1969; Laboratory and clinical characteristics of attenuated strains of influenza virus. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 41:589–594
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mackenzie J. S. 1977; The potential advantages and requirements of live, attenuated influenza virus vaccines. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 7:431–437
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mclaren C., Potter C. W., Jennings R. 1974; Immunity to influenza in ferrets. XIII. Protection against influenza infection by serum antibody to homologous haemagglutinin or neuraminidase antigens. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 160:33–45
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mahmud M. I. A., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1979a; The infant rat as a model for assessment of the attentuation of human influenza viruses. Journal of Medical Microbiology 12:43–54
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mahmud M. L. A., Maassab H. F., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1979b; Influenza virus infection of newborn rats: virulence of recombinant strains prepared from cold-adapted, attenuated parent. Archives of Virology 61:207–216
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Michaels R. H., Myerowitz R. L., Klaw R. 1977; Experimental Haemophilus meningitis potentiated by influenza A virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 135:641–645
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Michaels R. H., Mahmud M. I. A., Coup A. J., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1978; Influenza virus infection in newborn rats: a possible marker of attenuation for man. Journal of Medical Virology 2:253–264
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mills J. V., Chanock R. M. 1971; Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. I. Behaviour in tissue culture and in experimental animals. Journal of Infectious Diseases 123:145–157
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Morris C. A., Freestone D. S., Stealey V. M., Oliver P. R. 1975; Recombinant WRL105 strain live attenuated influenza vaccine. Immunogenicity, reactivity and transmissibility. Lancet 11:196–199
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mostow S. R., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1972; Detection of attenuation of recombinant influenza viruses in vitro. Lancet 11:116–117
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mostow S. R., Tyrrell D. A. J. 1973; The behaviour in vitro of attenuated recombinant influenza viruses. Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung 43:385–392
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Moxon E. R., Smith A. L., Averill D. R., Smith D. H. 1974; Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in infant rats after intranasal inoculation. Journal of Infectious Diseases 129:154–162
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Murphy B. R., Chalhub R. G., Nusinoff S. R., Chanock R. M. 1972; Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. II. Attenuation of ts recombinants for man. Journal of Infectious Diseases 126:170–178
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Murphy B. R., Wood F. T., Massicot J. G., Spring S. B., Chanock R. M. 1978; Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. XV. The genetic and biological characteristics of a recombinant influenza virus containing two ts lesions produced by mating two complementing, single lesion mutants. Virology 88:231–243
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Murphy B. R., Chanock R. M., Levine M. M., van Blerk G. A., Berquist E. J., Douglas R. G., Betts R. F., Couch R. B., Cate T. R. 1979; Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus: evaluation of the A/Victoria/75-ts-1A2 temperature-sensitive recombinant virus in seronegative adult volunteers. Infection and Immunity 23:249–252
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Oxford J. S., McGeoch D. J., Schild G. C., Beare A. S. 1978; Analysis of virion RNA segments and polypeptides of influenza A virus recombinants of defined virulence. Nature, London 273:778–779
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Palese P. 1977; The genes of influenza virus. Cell 10:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Reed L. J., Muench H. 1938; A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. American Journal of Hygiene 27:493–497
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rocchi G., Carlizza L., Andreoni M., Rogena G., Piga C., Peliosio A., Volpi A., Muzzi A. 1979; Protection from natural infection after live influenza virus immunisation in an open population. Journal of Hygiene 82:231–236
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rott R., Orlich M., Scholtissek C. 1979; Correlation of pathogenicity and gene constellation of influenza A viruses. III. Non-pathogenic recombinants derived from highly pathogenic parent strains. Journal of General Virology 44:471–477
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Teh C. Z., Jennings R., Potter C. W. 1980; Influenza virus infection of newborn rats: virulence of recombinant strains prepared from influenza A/Okuda/57 virus. Journal of Medical Microbiology (in the press)
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Toms G. L., Bird R. A., Kingsman S. M., Sweet C., Smith H. 1976; Behaviour in ferrets of two closely related clones of influenza virus of differing virulence for man. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 57:37–48
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tyrrell D. A. J. 1963; The use of volunteers. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 88:128–134
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-49-2-343
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-49-2-343
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error