1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

The pathogenic strain Italien and the apathogenic strain Ulster of Newcastle disease virus have been compared with respect to organ tropism and spread of infection in 11-day-old chick embryos. After infection of the endodermal layer of the chorioallantoic membrane by intra-allantoic inoculation with strain Italien, high virus titres are found in all extra-embryonic membranes and fluids and in the embryo itself. Infection results in early death of the embryo. In contrast, after infection with strain Ulster by the same route of inoculation, high virus titres are found only in the allantoic sac and embryos are not killed. Inoculation with strain Italien on to the ectodermal layer through an artificial air sac results in rapid spread of infection in the chorioallantoic membrane and the embryo dies before the virus invades other tissues including the embryo. Under the same conditions of infection, strain Ulster neither spreads within chorioallantoic membrane nor does it kill the embryo. Virus spread in each germinal layer of the chorioallantoic membrane was analysed by immune fluorescence. These studies showed that endoderm as well as mesoderm and ectoderm allowed the spread of strain Italien, whereas only the endoderm is permissive for strain Ulster. These differences in host range are based upon differential activation of the virus glycoproteins by proteolytic cleavage. The glycoproteins of strain Italien are cleaved in each germinal layer, whereas those of strain Ulster are cleaved only in endoderm. These studies demonstrate that, in the system analysed here, spread of infection and organ tropism are important factors for pathogenicity and both of these factors are determined by the susceptibility of the virus glycoproteins to proteolytic cleavage.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-45-2-263
1979-11-01
2022-08-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/45/2/JV0450020263.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-45-2-263&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bang F. B. 1953; The development of Newcastle disease virus in cells of the chorioallantoic membrane as studied by thin sections. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 92:309–316
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bang F. B., Luttrell C. N. 1961; Factors in the pathogenesis of virus disease. In Advances in Virus Research vol 8 pp 199–244 Edited by Smith M. K., Lauffer M. A. New York and London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blaškovič D., Styk B. 1967; Laboratory methods of virus transmission in multicellular organisms. In Methods in Virology vol 1 pp 163–235 Edited by Maramorosch K., Koprowski H. New York and London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bonner W. M., Laskey R. A. 1974; A film detection method for tritium-labelled proteins and nucleic acids in polyacrylamide gels. European Journal of Biochemistry 6:83–88
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Donnely W. H., Yunis E. J. 1971; The morphogenesis of virulent Newcastle disease virus in the chick embryo. American Journal of Pathology 62:87–110
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Feller U., Dougherty R. M., Di Stefano H. S. 1969; Morphogenesis of Newcastle disease virus in chorioallantoic membrane. Journal of Virology 5:753–762
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Laemmli U. K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, London 227:680–685
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Liu C., Bang F. B. 1953; An analysis of the difference between a destructive and a vaccine strain of NDV (Newcastle disease virus) in the chick embryo. Journal of Immunology 70:538–548
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Maeno K., Yoshida T., Iinuma M., Nagai Y., Matsumoto T., Asai J. 1970; Isolation of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of hemagglutinating virus of Japan. Journal of Virology 6:492–499
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Nagai Y., Klenk H.-D. 1977; Activation of precursors to both glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus by proteolytic cleavage. Virology 77:125–134
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Nagai Y., Klenk H.-D., Rott R. 1976a; Proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoproteins and its significance for the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 72:494–508
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Nagai Y., Ogura H., Klenk H.-D. 1976b; Studies on the assembly of the envelope of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 69:523–538
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Romanoff A. L. 1960; The extraembryonic membranes. In The Avian Embryo pp 1041–1140 New York: Macmillan;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Scheid A., Choppin P. W. 1976; Protease activation mutants of Sendai virus. Activation of biological properties by specific proteases. Virology 69:265–277
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Scheid A., Choppin P. W. 1977; Two disulfide-linked polypeptide chains constitute the active F protein of paramyxoviruses. Virology 80:54–66
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Waterson A. P., Pennington T. H., Allan W. H. 1967; Virulence in Newcastle disease virus. A preliminary study. British Medical Bulletin 23:138–143
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Yunis E. J., Donnely W. H. 1969; The ultrastructure of replicating Newcastle disease virus in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Virology 39:352–357
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-45-2-263
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-45-2-263
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error