This paper reports the development of a quantal transformation assay for bovine papilloma virus. Support for its specificity to fibropapilloma derived bovine papilloma virus comes from (1) the absence of transformation associated changes following inoculations of normal bovine skin, bovine teat papilloma, bovine teat focal epithelial hyperplasia lesion and canine papilloma derived suspensions; (2) transformation occurs when CsCl purified fibropapilloma-derived BPV is used; (3) transformation experiments reported here parallel transmission of fibropapillomas described elsewhere using the same extracts; (4) the time-temperature inactivation of BPV using transformation parallels results and is similar to that reported for other papovaviruses; (5) BPV transformed cells are tumorigenic in nude mice and increase resistance in calves to subsequent challenge with fibropapilloma derived virus; (6) inhibition of transformation by bovine papilloma virus occurs when sera from calves bearing regressing fibropapillomas are used in conjunction with complement; (7) transformation inhibition activity may be adsorbed from high titre sera using BPV-induced tumour cells or transformed cells but not using various virus suspensions. The detection of BPV in commercially available milk is reported. While it is highly likely that milk-derived BPV is active, no direct evidence is available since the vast majority of teat lesions contain papilloma and focal epithelial hyperplasia-derived BPV which neither transform cultures , nor produce fibropapillomas . The work reported here lends further support for the existence of several types of BPV suggested elsewhere.


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