The first reported phages for were isolated from three pulp mill waste aeration lagoons. enumeration studies indicated that the concentration of these phage can fluctuate by two to three orders of magnitude in the natural habitat. The three phages contain DNA and are morphologically similar, having a hexagonal head and long flexible tail with no base plate or tail fibres. Compared to other phage the latent phase of the phages was long, ranging from 8 to 10 h. However, the doubling time of the host strains was 5.3 to 7.0 h so that the ratio of latent phase to generation time was consistent with previous studies of phage having shorter latent periods.

Increasing the host lawn density above 4 × 10 cells/ml or incubation temperature from 21 to 30 °C decreased both the plating efficiency and maximum plaque size for the phages. These results suggest that lawn density and incubation temperature are important factors in the initial isolation of phages from natural habitats.


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