The relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus RNAs. Clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. Isolates of SVDV from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. Recent isolates of Coxsackie B5 virus also appeared to be similar but clear differences could be detected between these and the prototype (Faulkner) strain of the virus. The SVDV isolates were more closely related to the Faulkner strain than to the recent isolates of Coxsackie B5 virus. Perhaps of more importance, the Faulkner strain was more closely related to SVDV than it was to the recent Coxsackie B5 isolates. The significance of these observations in relation to the recent emergence of swine vesicular disease is discussed.


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