A few plant viruses are unusual in that they are not transmitted by insects from plants in which they are present alone but are transmitted from plants also infected with another (helper) virus that is insect-transmitted. In all the reported instances, the helper virus has a species of aphid as its vector. They all fall into one of two groups, according to the manner of transmission by aphids of the helper virus. The helper virus may be , when the aphids acquire and transmit the virus within a few min. but lose their ability to infect after a few probes on a healthy leaf, or it may be (circulative), when the aphids need to feed on infected plants for long periods before becoming infective but then remain infective for a long period, during which they can infect several plants.


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