1887

Abstract

The anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) represent a coherent phylogenetic clade within the Mycota. Twenty genera have been described so far. Currently, the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships between AGF genera remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized 52 transcriptomic datasets from 14 genera to resolve AGF inter-genus relationships using phylogenomics, and to provide a quantitative estimate (amino acid identity, AAI) for intermediate rank assignments. We identify four distinct supra-genus clades, encompassing all genera producing polyflagellated zoospores, bulbous rhizoids, the broadly circumscribed genus , and the and affiliated genera. We also identify the genus as the earliest evolving AGF genus. Concordance between phylogenomic outputs and RPB1 and D1/D2 LSU, but not RPB2, MCM7, EF1α or ITS1, phylogenies was observed. We combine phylogenomic analysis and AAI outputs with informative phenotypic traits to propose accommodating 14/20 AGF genera into four families: fam. nov. (encompassing the genera and ), fam. nov. (encompassing the genus ), emend the description of the family to encompass the genera , , , , , and , as well as the family to include the genera , and in addition to . We refrain from proposing families for the deeply branching genus and for genera with uncertain position (, , , and ) pending availability of additional isolates and sequence data; and these genera are designated as ‘genera incertae sedis’ in the order . Our results establish an evolutionary-grounded Linnaean taxonomic framework for the AGF, provide quantitative estimates for rank assignments, and demonstrate the utility of RPB1 as an additional informative marker in taxonomy.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Science Foundation (Award 2029478)
    • Principle Award Recipient: NohaH. Youssef
  • National Science Foundation (Award 2029478)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MostafaS. Elshahed
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2023-02-24
2024-04-13
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