1887

Abstract

Strain CS-1, a novel facultative anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the larval gastrointestinal tract of the biting midge, , a vector of the epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and the bluetongue virus. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic rods. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.5 and 37 °C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.3 mol%, estimated by using HPLC. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C (45.9 %) and C (26.6 %). The polar lipid profile comprised glycolipids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids and phosphoglycolipids. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Strain CS-1 had very low 16S rRNA gene similarity to members of the phylum : KM45013 (85 % similarity) and MOL361 (88 % similarity). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, genes, and conserved protein sequences of the whole genome revealed that strain CS-1 was related to members of the classes and within the phylum . Furthermore, average nucleotide identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization analyses of the whole genome revealed very low sequence similarity to species of and ( KM45013 and sp. H121). These results indicate that strain CS-1 belongs to the phylum and represents a new species of a novel genus, family, order and class. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and genomic characteristics, we propose the novel taxon gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strain CS-1 (=CCUG 71726=DSM 106607) within the hereby new proposed novel family fam. nov., new order ord. nov. and new class classis nov. in the phylum .

Keyword(s): Firmicutes , Culicoides and larvae
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.004543
2020-10-30
2020-12-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Marchandin H, Teyssier C, Campos J, Jean-Pierre H, Roger F et al. Negativicoccus succinicivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human clinical samples, emended description of the family Veillonellaceae and description of Negativicutes classis nov., Selenomonadales ord. nov. and Acidaminococcaceae fam. nov. in the bacterial phylum Firmicutes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:1271–1279 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Siala A, Hill IR, Gray TRG. Populations of spore-forming bacteria in an acid forest soil, with special reference to Bacillus subtilis. Microbiol 1974; 81:183–190 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ogg CD, Patel BKC. Sporolituus thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a citrate-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from geothermal waters of the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009; 59:2848–2853 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boeye A, Aerts M. Numerical taxonomy of Bacillus isolates from sediments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 1976; 26:427–441
    [Google Scholar]
  5. de Rezende JR, Kjeldsen KU, Hubert CRJ, Finster K, Loy A et al. Dispersal of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum endospores into Baltic sea sediments over thousands of years. ISME J 2013; 7:72–84 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Watanabe M, Kojima H, Fukui M. Limnochorda Pilosa gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic bacterium and proposal of Limnochordaceae fam. nov., Limnochordales ord. nov. and Limnochordia classis nov. in the phylum Firmicutes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:2378–2384 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T. The revised road map of the manual. In Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM. (editors) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology New York: Springer; 2005 pp 159–220
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Sokolova T, Hanel J, Onyenwoke RU, Reysenbach A-L, Banta A et al. Novel chemolithotrophic, thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria Thermolithobacter ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thermolithobacter carboxydivorans sp. nov. Extremophiles 2007; 11:145–157 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jumas-Bilak E, Roudière L, Marchandin H. Description of 'Synergistetes' phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum 'Deferribacteres' and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum 'Firmicutes'. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009; 59:1028–1035 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ludwig W, Schleifer KH, Whitman WB. Revised roadmap to the phylum Firmicutes. In De Vos P, Garrity GM, Jones D, Krieg NR, Ludwig W et al. (editors) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2009 pp 1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Yutin N, Galperin MY. A genomic update on clostridial phylogeny: Gram-negative spore formers and other misplaced clostridia. Environ Microbiol 2013; 15:n/a–2641 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Alauzet C, Marchandin H, Courtin P, Mory F, Lemée L et al. Multilocus analysis reveals diversity in the genus Tissierella: description of Tissierella carlieri sp. nov. in the new class Tissierellia classis nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 2014; 37:23–34 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Pavan ME, Pavan EE, Glaeser SP, Etchebehere C, Kämpfer P et al. Proposal for a new classification of a deep branching bacterial phylogenetic lineage: transfer of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and Coprothermobacter platensis to Coprothermobacteraceae fam. nov., within Coprothermobacterales ord. nov., Coprothermobacteria classis nov. and Coprothermobacterota phyl. nov. and emended description of the family Thermodesulfobiaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018; 68:1627–1632 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hugh R, Leifson E. The taxonomic significance of fermentative versus oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates by various Gram negative bacteria. J Bacteriol 1953; 66:24–26 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schäffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z et al. Gapped blast and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 1997; 25:3389–3402 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ. ClustalW : improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 1994; 22:4673–4680 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tamura K, Nei M. Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol 1993; 10:512–526 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. mega7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 2016; 33:1870–1874 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Edgar RC. Muscle: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res 2004; 32:1792–1797 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jones DT, Taylor WR, Thornton JM. The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Comput Appl Biosci 1992; 8:275–282 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bolger AM, Lohse M, Usadel B. Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics 2014; 30:2114–2120 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bankevich A, Nurk S, Antipov D, Gurevich AA, Dvorkin M et al. SPAdes: a new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing. J Comput Biol 2012; 19:455–477 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gurevich A, Saveliev V, Vyahhi N, Tesler G. QUAST: quality assessment tool for genome assemblies. Bioinformatics 2013; 29:1072–1075 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Auchtung TA, Holder ME, Gesell JR, Ajami NJ, Duarte RTD et al. Complete genome sequence of Turicibacter sp. strain H121, isolated from the feces of a contaminated germ-free mouse. Genome Announc 2016; 4:e00114–00116 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gobeli Brawand S, Cotting K, Gómez-Sanz E, Collaud A, Thomann A et al. Macrococcus canis sp. nov., a skin bacterium associated with infections in dogs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:621–626 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bang B-H, Rhee M-S, Chang D-H, Park D-S, Kim B-C. Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2015; 107:443–451 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Darling ACE, Mau B, Blattner FR, Perna NT. Mauve: multiple alignment of conserved genomic sequence with rearrangements. Genome Res 2004; 14:1394–1403 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Richter M, Rosselló-Móra R, Oliver Glöckner F, Peplies J. JSpeciesWS: a web server for prokaryotic species circumscription based on pairwise genome comparison. Bioinformatics 2016; 32:929–931 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Meier-Kolthoff JP, Göker M. TYGS is an automated high-throughput platform for state-of-the-art genome-based taxonomy. Nat Commun 2019; 10:2182 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Segata N, Börnigen D, Morgan XC, Huttenhower C. PhyloPhlAn is a new method for improved phylogenetic and taxonomic placement of microbes. Nat Commun 2013; 4:2304 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bosshard PP, Zbinden R, Altwegg M. Turicibacter sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2002; 52:1263–1266 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fischer W. Bacterial Phosphoglycolipids and Lipoteichoic Acids. In Kates M. editor Glycolipids, Phosphoglycolipids, and Sulfoglycolipids. Handbook of Lipid Research Boston, MA: Springer; 1990
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sohlenkamp C, Geiger O. Bacterial membrane lipids: diversity in structures and pathways. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2016; 40:133–159 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schleifer KH. Phylum XIII. Firmicutes Gibbons and Murray 1978, 5 (Firmacutes [sic] Gibbons and Murray 1978, 5). In De Vos P, Garrity GM, Jones D, Krieg NR, Ludwig W et al. (editors) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2009 p 19
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.004543
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.004543
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error