1887

Abstract

Landscape-grown foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata A. K. Irvine) trees displaying symptoms of severe foliar chlorosis, stunting, general decline and mortality reminiscent of coconut yellow decline disease were observed in Bangi, Malaysia, during 2012. DNA samples from foliage tissues of 15 symptomatic palms were analysed by employing a nested PCR assay primed by phytoplasma universal ribosomal RNA operon primer pairs, P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R2. The assay yielded amplicons of a single band of 1.25 kb from DNA samples of 11 symptomatic palms. Results from cloning and sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments revealed that, in three palms, three mutually distinct phytoplasmas comprising strains related to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, as well as a novel phytoplasma, were present as triple infections. The 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from the novel phytoplasma shared less than 96 % nucleotide sequence identity with that of each previously describedspecies of the provisional genus ‘Ca. Phytoplasma ’, justifying its recognition as the reference strain of a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma wodyetiae’. Virtual RFLP profiles of the R16F2n/R2 portion of the 16S rRNA gene and the pattern similarity coefficient value (0.74) supported the delineation of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma wodyetiae’ as the sole representative subgroup A member of a new phytoplasma ribosomal group, 16SrXXXVI.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.002187
2017-09-14
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/67/10/3765.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.002187&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bates DM. Utilization pools: a framework for comparing and evaluating the economic importance of palms. Adv Econ Bot 1988; 6: 56– 64
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Harrison NA, Jones P. Disease caused by a phytoplasma: lethal yellowing. In Elliott ML, Broshcat TK, Uchida JY, Simone GW. (editors) Compendium of Ornamental Palm Diseases and Disorders St. Paul., MN, USA: APS Press; 2004; pp. 39– 41
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Weintraub PG, Beanland L. Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annu Rev Entomol 2006; 51: 91– 111 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Jomantiene R, Davis RE. Clusters of diverse genes existing as multiple, sequence-variable mosaics in a phytoplasma genome. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006; 255: 59– 65 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Jomantiene R, Zhao Y, Davis RE. Sequence-variable mosaics: composites of recurrent transposition characterizing the genomes of phylogenetically diverse phytoplasmas. DNA Cell Biol 2007; 26: 557– 564 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Wei W, Davis RE, Jomantiene R, Zhao Y. Ancient, recurrent phage attacks and recombination shaped dynamic sequence-variable mosaics at the root of phytoplasma genome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105: 11827– 11832 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Oshima K, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Jung HY, Wei W et al. Reductive evolution suggested from the complete genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic phytoplasma. Nat Genet 2004; 36: 27– 29 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davis RE, Jomantiene R, Zhao Y. Lineage-specific decay of folate biosynthesis genes suggests ongoing host adaptation in phytoplasmas. DNA Cell Biol 2005; 24: 832– 840 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Zhao Y, Davis RE, Wei W, Shao J, Jomantiene R et al. Phytoplasma Genomes: evolution through mutually complementary mechanisms, gene loss and horizontal acquisition. In Gross D, Lichens-Park A, Kole C. (editors) Genomics of Plant-Associated Bacteria Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag GmbH; 2014; pp. 234– 271
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Zhao Y, Davis RE, Wei W, Lee IM. Should 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' be retained within the order Acholeplasmatales?. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65: 1075– 1082 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Davis RE, Dally EL, Zhao Y, Lee I-M, Wei W et al. Unraveling the etiology of north American grapevine yellows (NAGY): novel NAGY phytoplasma sequevars related to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni'. Plant Disease 2015; 99: 1087– 1097 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Contaldo N, Bertaccini A, Paltrinieri S, Windsor HM, Windsor D. Axenic culture of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas. Phytopathol Medit 2012; 51: 607– 617
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Contaldo N, Satta E, Zambon Y, Paltrinieri S, Bertaccini A. Development and evaluation of different complex media for phytoplasma isolation and growth. J Microbiol Methods 2016; 127: 105– 110 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ghosh SK, Raychaudhuri SP, Chenulu VV, Varma A. Isolation, cultivation and characterization of mycoplasma-like organisms from plants. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 1975; 41: 362– 366
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Giannotti J, Vago C. Role des mycoplasmes dans l’étiologie de la phylloidie du Trèfle: Culture et transmission expérimentale de la maladie. Physiol Veg 1971; 9: 541– 553
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jacoli GG. Attempts to culture in vitro mycoplasma-like organisms from plants, a retrospective view. J Phytopathol 1981; 102: 148– 152 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lin S-C, Lin SC, Lee CS, Chin RJ. Isolation and cultivation of, and inoculation with, a mycoplasma causing white leaf disease of sugarcane. Phytopathology 1970; 60: 795– 797 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lombardo G, Pignatelli P. Cultivation in a cell-free medium of a mycoplasma-like organism from Vinca rosea with phyllody symptoms of the flowers. Annali Di Microbiologia Ed Enzimologia 1970; 20: 84– 89
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Teranaka M, Otsuka K. Culture of mycoplasma-like organisms associated with several witches' broom and Aster yellow plants on artificial media. Utsunomiya Univ Bull 1973; 8: 11– 19
    [Google Scholar]
  20. IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team – Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1243– 1255 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Davis RE, Zhao Y, Wei W, Dally EL, Lee I-M. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma luffae’, a novel taxon associated with a witches’-broom disease of loofah, Luffa aegyptica Mill. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67: 3127– 3133 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fernández FD, Galdeano E, Kornowski MV, Arneodo JD, Conci LR. Description of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma meliae', a phytoplasma associated with Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) yellowing in South America. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66: 5244– 5251 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wei W, Davis RE, Lee IM, Zhao Y. Computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007; 57: 1855– 1867 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Harrison NA, Cordova I, Richardson PA, DiBonito R. et al. Detection and diagnosis of lethal yellowing. In Oropeza C, Verdeil CL, Ashburner GR, Cardeña R, Santamaria JM. (editors) Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1999; pp. 183– 196 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sullivan M, Harrison N. 2013; CPHST Pest Datasheet for ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae’ and related strains. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST http://caps.ceris.purdue.edu
  26. Ellison D, Ellison A. Cultivated Palms of the World Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press; 2001; pp. 257
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Padovan AC. Molecular Characterisation of Phytoplasmas in Australia Ph.D. Dissertation The Northern Territory University, Darwin, Australia: 1998
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Naderali N, Nejat N, Tan YH, Vadamalai G. First Report of two distinct phytoplasma species, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris', simultaneously associated with yellow decline of Wodyetia bifurcata (Foxtail Palm) in Malaysia. Plant Dis 2013; 97: 1504 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Myrie WA, Harrison NA, Douglas L, Helmick E, Gore-Francis J et al. First report of lethal yellowing disease associated with subgroup 16SrIV-A phytoplasmas in Antigua, West Indies. New Dis Rep 2014; 29: 12 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Harrison NA, Bourne CM, Cox RL, Tsai JH, Richardson PA. DNA probes for detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida. Phytopathology 1992; 82: 216– 244 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Harrison NA, Oropeza C. Coconut lethal yellowing. In Harrison NA, Rao GP, Marcone C. (editors) Characterization, Diagnosis, And Management of Phytoplasmas Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC; 2008; pp. 219– 248
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Cronje P, Dabek AJ, Jones P, Tymon AM. Slow decline: a new disease of mature date palms in North Africa associated with a phytoplasma. Plant Pathol 2000; 49: 804 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nejat N, Sijam K, Abdullah SNA, Vadamalai G, Dickinson M. Phytoplasmas associated with disease of coconut in Malaysia: phylogenetic groups and host plant species. Plant Pathol 2009; 58: 1152– 1160 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ramaswamy M, Nair S, Soumya VP, Thomas GV. Phylogenetic analysis identifies a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae'-related strain associated with yellow leaf disease of areca palm (Areca catechu L.) in India. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63: 1376– 1382 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Nejat N, Vadamalai G, Davis RE, Harrison NA, Sijam K et al. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum', a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63: 540– 548 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Harrison NA, Davis RE, Oropeza C, Helmick EE, Narváez M et al. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola', associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014; 64: 1890– 1899 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Naderali N, Vadamalai G, Tan YH, Nejat N. Detection and identification of aster yellows phytoplasma associated with lipstick yellow frond disease in Malaysia. J Phytopathol 2014; 162: 264– 268 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Naderali N, Vadamalai G, Nejat N, Ling KL. First report of phytoplasma (16SrI) associated with yellow decline disease of royal palms [ Roystonea regia (Kunth) O. F. Cook] in Malaysia. J Phytopathol 2015; 163: 133– 137 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nejat N, Sijam K, Abdullah SNA, Vadamalai G, Dickinson M. Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with Coconut Yellow Decline (CYD) in Malaysia. Am J Appl Sci 2009; 6: 1331– 1340 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Deng S, Hiruki C. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 1991; 14: 53– 61 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gundersen DE, Lee I-M. Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathol Mediterr 1996; 35: 144– 151
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lee I-M, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Davis RE, Bartoszyk IM. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1998; 48: 1153– 1169 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wei W, Lee IM, Davis RE, Suo X, Zhao Y. Automated RFLP pattern comparison and similarity coefficient calculation for rapid delineation of new and distinct phytoplasma 16Sr subgroup lineages. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008; 58: 2368– 2377 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Bertaccini A, Duduk B, Paltrinieri S, Contaldo N. Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma diseases: a severe threat to agriculture. Am J Plant Sci 2014; 5: 1763– 1788 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Pérez-López E, Luna-Rodríguez M, Olivier CY, Dumonceaux TJ. The underestimated diversity of phytoplasmas in Latin America. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66: 492– 513 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zhao Y, Davis RE. Criteria for phytoplasma 16Sr group/subgroup delineation and the need of a platform for proper registration of new groups and subgroups. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66: 2121– 2123 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gurr GM, Johnson AC, Ash GJ, Wilson BA, Ero MM et al. Coconut lethal yellowing diseases: a phytoplasma threat to palms of global economic and social significance. Front Plant Sci 2016; 7: 1521 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Zhao Y, Wei W, Lee IM, Shao J, Suo X et al. Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009; 59: 2582– 2593 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tamura K, Nei M. Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol 1993; 10: 512– 526 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 2013; 30: 2725– 2729 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Šafárová D, Zemánek T, Válová P, Navrátil M. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop]. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66: 1745– 1753 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Davis RE, Sinclair WA. Phytoplasma identity and disease etiology. Phytopathology 1998; 88: 1372– 1376 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wu W, Cai H, Wei W, Davis RE, Lee I-M et al. Identification of two new phylogenetically distant phytoplasmas from Senna surattensis plants exhibiting stem fasciation and shoot proliferation symptoms. Ann Appl Biol 2012; 160: 25– 34 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Davis RE, Zhao Y, Dally EL, Lee IM, Jomantiene R et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’, a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63: 766– 776 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Davis RE, Harrison NA, Zhao Y, Wei W, Dally EL. Candidatus Phytoplasma hispanicum’, a novel taxon associated with Mexican periwinkle virescence disease of Catharanthus roseus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66: 3463– 3467 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Quaglino F, Zhao Y, Casati P, Bulgari D, Bianco PA et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63: 2879– 2894 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Win NK, Lee SY, Bertaccini A, Namba S, Jung HY. Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae’ associated with witches’ broom disease of Balanites triflora. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63: 636– 640 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Lee IM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Davis RE, Bottner KD, Marcone C et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with aster yellows and related diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1037– 1048 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Arocha Y, Antesana O, Montellano E, Franco P, Plata G et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici’, a phytoplasma associated with 'hoja de perejil' disease in Bolivia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007; 57: 1704– 1710 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Zreik L, Carle P, Bové JM, Garnier M. Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches’-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, ‘Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1995; 45: 449– 453 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. White DT, Blackall LL, Scott PT, Walsh KB. Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ and a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1998; 48: 941– 951 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Lee IM, Martini M, Marcone C, Zhu SF. Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 337– 347 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Jung HY, Sawayanagi T, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Wei W et al. Candidatus phytoplasma ziziphi’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with jujube witches’-broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53: 1037– 1041 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Malembic-Maher S, Salar P, Filippin L, Carle P, Angelini E et al. Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2011; 61: 2129– 2134 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Hiruki C, Wang K. Clover proliferation phytoplasma: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1349– 1353 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Davis RE, Zhao Y, Dally EL, Jomantiene R, Lee I-M et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum’, a novel taxon, and strain PassWB-Br4, a new subgroup 16SrIII-V phytoplasma, from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2012; 62: 984– 989 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Griffiths HM, Sinclair WA, Smart CD, Davis RE. The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: ‘Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999; 49: 1605– 1614 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Verdin E, Salar P, Danet JL, Choueiri E, Jreijiri F et al. Candidatus phytoplasma phoenicium’ sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53: 833– 838 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Seemüller E, Schneider B. Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1217– 1226 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Marcone C, Gibb KS, Streten C, Schneider B. Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches’-broom, buckthorn witches’-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1025– 1029 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Jung HY, Sawayanagi T, Wongkaew P, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53: 1925– 1929 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Davis RE, Dally EL, Gundersen DE, Lee IM, Habili N. Candidatus phytoplasma australiense,’ a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1997; 47: 262– 269 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Sawayanagi T, Horikoshi N, Kanehira T, Shinohara M, Bertaccini A et al. Candidatus phytoplasma japonicum’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese Hydrangea phyllody. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999; 49: 1275– 1285 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Valiunas D, Staniulis J, Davis RE. Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon discovered in yellows diseased strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006; 56: 277– 281 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Martini M, Marcone C, Mitrović J, Maixner M, Delić D et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with bindweed yellows in four European countries. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2012; 62: 2910– 2915 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Marcone C, Schneider B, Seemüller E. Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54: 1077– 1082 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Montano HG, Davis RE, Dally EL, Hogenhout S, Pimentel JP et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches’ broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001; 51: 1109– 1118 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Arocha Y, López M, Piñol B, Fernández M, Picornell B et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae’, two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55: 2451– 2463 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Lee IM, Bottner KD, Secor G, Rivera-Varas V. Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum’, a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006; 56: 1593– 1597 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Jung HY, Sawayanagi T, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Miyata S et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches’ broom disease. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2002; 52: 1543– 1549 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Schneider B, Torres E, Martín MP, Schröder M, Behnke HD et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’, a novel taxon from Pinus silvestris and Pinus halepensis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55: 303– 307 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Al-Saady NA, Khan AJ, Calari A, Al-Subhi AM, Bertaccini A. Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense’, associated with witches’-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008; 58: 461– 466 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lee I-M, Bottner-Parker KD, Zhao Y, Villalobos W, Moreira L. Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum’ a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2011; 61: 2822– 2826 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.002187
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.002187
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary File 1

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error