1887

Abstract

We have previously described a novel taxon of the genus Ehrlichia (type strain Wisconsin), closely related to Ehrlichia muris , that causes human ehrlichiosis among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern USA. DNA from this bacterium was also detected in Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus leucopus collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin. To determine the relationship between the E. muris -like agent (EMLA) and other species of the genus Ehrlichia phenotypic, genotypic and epidemiologic comparisons were undertaken, including sequence analysis of eight gene loci (3906 nucleotides) for 39 EMLA DNA samples and the type strain of E. muris AS145. Three loci were also sequenced from DNA of nine strains of E. muris from mouse spleens from Japan. All sequences from E. muris were distinct from homologous EMLA sequences, but differences between them were less than those observed among other species of the genus Ehrlichia . Phenotypic comparison of EMLA and E. muris revealed similar culture and electron microscopic characteristics, but important differences were noted in their geographic distribution, ecological associations and behavior in mouse models of infection. Based on these comparisons, we propose that type strain Wisconsin represents a novel subspecies, Ehrlichia muris subsp. eauclairensis,subsp. nov. This strain is available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Rickettsial Isolate Reference Collection (CRIRC EMU002) and through the Collection de Souches de l’Unité des Rickettsies (CSURP2883 ). The subspecies Ehrlichia muris subsp. muris subsp. nov. is automatically created and the type strain AS145 is also available through the same collections (CRIRC EMU001, CSUR E2). Included is an emended description of E. muris .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001896
2017-07-12
2019-08-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/67/7/2121.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001896&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, Dasch GA, Palmer GH et al. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001; 51: 2145– 2165 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Donatien A, Lestoquard F. Existence en Algerie d'une Rickettsia du chien. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1935; 28: 418– 419
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Moshkovski SD. Cytotropic inducers of infection and the classification of the Rickettsiae with Chlamydozoa. Advances in Modern Biology 1945; 19: 1– 44
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson BE, Greene CE, Jones DC, Dawson JE. Ehrlichia ewingii sp. nov., the etiologic agent of canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992; 42: 299– 302 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Wen B, Rikihisa Y, Mott J, Fuerst PA, Kawahara M et al. Ehrlichia muris sp. nov., identified on the basis of 16S rRNA base sequences and serological, morphological, and biological characteristics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1995; 45: 250– 254 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cowdry EV. Studies on the etiology of heartwater 1. Observation of a rickettsia, Rickettsia ruminantium (n. sp.), in the tissues of infected animals. J Exp Med 1925; 42: 231– 252 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cowdry EV. Studies on the etiology of heartwater 2. Rickettsia ruminantium (n.sp.) in the tissues of ticks transmitting the disease. J Exp Med 1925; 42: 253– 274 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Pritt BS, Sloan LM, Johnson DK, Munderloh UG, Paskewitz SM et al. Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 422– 429 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Telford III SR, Goethert HK, Cunningham JA. Prevalence of Ehrlichia muris in Wisconsin deer ticks collected during the mid 1990s. Open Microbiol J 2011; 5: 18– 20 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Stromdahl E, Hamer S, Jenkins S, Sloan L, Williamson P et al. Comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent, of Ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern United States over a 15 year period (1997–2012). Parasit Vectors 2014; 7: 553 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Castillo CG, Eremeeva ME, Paskewitz SM, Sloan LM, Lee X et al. Detection of human pathogenic Ehrlichia muris-like agent in Peromyscus leucopus. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2015; 6: 155– 157 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Smetanová K, Boldis V, Kocianová E, Spitalská E. Detection of Ehrlichia muris in a yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in Central Slovakia. Acta Virol 2007; 51: 69– 71 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Spitalská E, Boldis V, Kostanová Z, Kocianová E, Stefanidesová K. Incidence of various tick-borne microorganisms in rodents and ticks of central Slovakia. Acta Virol 2008; 52: 175– 179 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Alekseev AN, Dubinina HV, van de Pol I, Schouls LM. Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 2237– 2242 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eremeeva ME, Oliveira A, Moriarity J, Robinson JB, Tokarevich NK et al. Detection and identification of bacterial agents in Ixodes persulcatus Schulze ticks from the north western region of Russia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2007; 7: 426– 436 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kang SW, Doan HT, Choe SE, Noh JH, Yoo MS et al. Molecular investigation of tick-borne pathogens in ticks from grazing cattle in Korea. Parasitol Int 2013; 62: 276– 282 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kawahara M, Suto C, Rikihisa Y, Yamamoto S, Tsuboi Y. Characterization of ehrlichial organisms isolated from a wild mouse. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 89– 96 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Doyle CK, Labruna MB, Breitschwerdt EB, Tang YW, Corstvet RE et al. Detection of medically important Ehrlichia by quantitative multicolor TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction of the dsb gene. J Mol Diagn 2005; 7: 504– 510 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Doyle CK, Zhang X, Popov VL, McBride JW. An immunoreactive 38-kilodalton protein of Ehrlichia canis shares structural homology and iron-binding capacity with the ferric ion-binding protein family. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 62– 69 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Tamamoto C, Seino N, Suzuki M, Kaji K, Takahashi H et al. Detection of Ehrlichia muris DNA from sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. Vet Parasitol 2007; 150: 370– 373 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Yu XJ, Walker DH. Sequence and characterization of an Ehrlichia chaffeensis gene encoding 314 amino acids highly homologous to the NAD A enzyme. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1997; 154: 53– 58 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ogden TH, Rosenberg MS. How should gaps be treated in parsimony? A comparison of approaches using simulation. Mol Phylogenet Evol 2007; 42: 817– 826 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mollenhauer HH. Plastic embedding mixtures for use in electron microscopy. Stain Technol 1964; 39: 111– 114 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Popov VL, Han VC, Chen SM, Dumler JS, Feng HM et al. Ultrastructural differentiation of the genogroups in the genus Ehrlichia. J Med Microbiol 1998; 47: 235– 251 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Olano JP, Wen G, Feng HM, McBride JW, Walker DH. Histologic, serologic, and molecular analysis of persistent ehrlichiosis in a murine model. Am J Pathol 2004; 165: 997– 1006 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kawahara M, Suto C, Shibata S, Futohashi M, Rikihisa Y. Impaired antigen specific responses and enhanced polyclonal stimulation in mice infected with Ehrlichia muris. Microbiol Immunol 1996; 40: 575– 581 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Borjesson D, Macnamara K, Johns J, Winslow G. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia muris induce cytopenias and global defects in hematopoiesis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 66– 67 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Saito TB, Thirumalapura NR, Shelite TR, Rockx-Brouwer D, Popov VL et al. An animal model of a newly emerging human ehrlichiosis. J Infect Dis 2015; 211: 452– 461 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Karpathy SE, Allerdice ME, Sheth M, Dasch GA, Levin ML. Co-feeding transmission of the Ehrlichia muris-like agent to mice (Mus musculus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2016; 16: 145– 150 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Johnson DK, Schiffman EK, Davis JP, Neitzel DF, Sloan LM et al. Human infection with Ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, United States, 2007-2013(1). Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21: 1794– 1799 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kawahara M, Ito T, Suto C, Shibata S, Rikihisa Y et al. Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 1123– 1129 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lynn GE, Oliver JD, Nelson CM, Felsheim RF, Kurtti TJ et al. Tissue distribution of the Ehrlichia muris-like agent in a tick vector. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0122007 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Rar VA, Fomenko NV, Dobrotvorsky AK, Livanova NN, Rudakova SA et al. Tickborne pathogen detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11: 1708– 1715 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 1987; 4: 406– 425 [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Felsenstein J. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 1985; 39: 783– 791 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tamura K, Nei M, Kumar S. Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 11030– 11035 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M et al. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28: 2731– 2739 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001896
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.001896
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary File 1

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error