1887

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, subphylum ) are symbionts of most terrestrial plants. They commonly harbour endobacteria of a largely unknown biology, referred to as MRE (/mycoplasma-related endobacteria). Here, we propose to accommodate MRE in the novel genus ‘ Moeniiplasma.’ Phylogeny reconstructions based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences cluster ‘ ’ with representatives of the class , whereas phylogenies derived from amino acid sequences of 19 genes indicate that it is a discrete lineage sharing ancestry with the members of the family . Cells of ‘ ’ reside directly in the host cytoplasm and have not yet been cultivated. They are coccoid, ~500 nm in diameter, with an electron-dense layer outside the plasma membrane. However, the draft genomes of ‘ ’ suggest that this structure is not a Gram-positive cell wall. The evolution of ‘ ’ appears to be driven by an ultrarapid rate of mutation accumulation related to the loss of DNA repair mechanisms. Moreover, molecular evolution patterns suggest that, in addition to vertical transmission, ‘ ’ is able to transmit horizontally among distinct host lineages and exchange genes. On the basis of these unique lifestyle features, the new species ‘ Moeniiplasma glomeromycotorum’ is proposed.

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2017-05-01
2020-09-25
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